Delivery And Routing Of Ip Packets Pdf
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Planning an IPv6 Network Tasks. Systems That Are Network Clients. Monitoring and Modifying Transport Layer Services. Administering Network Interfaces Tasks.
Planning an IPv6 Network Tasks. Systems That Are Network Clients. Monitoring and Modifying Transport Layer Services. Administering Network Interfaces Tasks. Configuring an IPv6 Network Tasks. Troubleshooting Network Problems Tasks. IP Security Architecture Overview. IP Security Architecture Reference. Administering Mobile IP Tasks.
This section contains procedures and examples that show how to configure forwarding and routing for routers and hosts on IPv4 networks. Packet forwarding is the basic method for sharing information across systems on a network. Packets are transferred between a source interface and a destination interface, usually on two different systems. When you issue a command or send a message to a nonlocal interface, your system forwards those packets onto the local network.
The interface with the destination IP address that is specified in the packet headers then retrieves the packets from the local network. If the destination address is not on the local network, the packets are then forwarded to the next adjacent network, or hop.
By default, packet forwarding is automatically configured when you install Oracle Solaris. Routing is the process by which systems decide where to send a packet. When the source system and the destination system are on the same local network, the path that packets travel between them is called a direct route. If a packet must travel at least one hop beyond its source system, the path between the source system and destination system is called an indirect route.
The routing protocols learn the path to a destination interface and retain data about known routes in the system's routing table. Routers are specially configured systems with multiple physical interfaces that connect the router to more than one local network. Therefore, the router can forward packets beyond the home LAN, regardless of whether the router runs a routing protocol.
For more information about how routers forward packets, refer to Planning for Routers on Your Network. Routing protocols handle routing activity on a system and, by exchanging routing information with other hosts, maintain known routes to remote networks. Both routers and hosts can run routing protocols. The routing protocols on the host communicate with routing daemons on other routers and hosts.
These protocols assist the host in determining where to forward packets. When network interfaces are enabled, the system automatically communicates with the routing daemons. These daemons monitor routers on the network and advertise the routers' addresses to the hosts on the local network.
Some routing protocols, though not all, also maintain statistics that you can use to measure routing performance. Unlike packet forwarding, you must explicitly configure routing on an Oracle Solaris system. This section contains tasks for administering packet forwarding and routing on IPv4 routers and hosts. Routing protocols are classified as interior gateway protocols IGPs , exterior gateway protocols EGPs , or a combination of both.
Interior gateway protocols exchange routing information between routers on networks under common administrative control. Exterior gateway protocols enable the router that connects the local internetwork to an external network to exchange information with another router on the external network. The following table provides information about the Oracle Solaris routing protocols and the location of each protocol's associated documentation.
Oracle Solaris also supports the Open Source Quagga routing protocol suite. These protocols are available from the SFW consolidation disk, though they are not part of the mainOracle Solaris distribution. The following table lists the Quagga protocols:.
The figure shows a corporate network autonomous system that is subdivided into two routing domains, A and B. A routing domain is an internetwork with a cohesive routing policy, either for administrative purposes or because the domain uses a single routing protocol. Both domains in the figure run routing protocols from the Quagga protocol suite. All systems within this domain run OSPF as their interior gateway protocol.
In addition to internal hosts and routers, Domain A includes two border routers. To facilitate communications between the Corporate Network and the outside world, R1 runs BGP over its externally facing network interface. For more information on the Quagga protocols, refer to the Open Solaris Quagga. For configuration procedures for these protocols, go to the documentation for quagga.
Sites with multiple routers and networks typically administer their network topology as a single routing domain, or autonomous system AS. The following figure shows a typical network topology that would be considered a small AS.
This topology is referenced in the examples throughout this section. The figure shows an AS that is divided into three local networks, Four routers share packet-forwarding and routing responsibilities. The AS includes the following types of systems:.
Border routers connect an AS to an external network, such as the Internet. Default routers maintain routing information about all the systems on the local network. Router 1 also serves as the default router for Router 1 maintains routing information for all systems on Router 2s interfaces connect to internal network Packet-forwarding routers forward packets but do not run routing protocols. This type of router receives packets from one of its interfaces that is connected to a single network.
These packets are then forwarded through another interface on the router to another local network. Multihomed hosts have two or more interfaces that are connected to the same network segment.
A multihomed host can forward packets, which is the default for all systems that run Oracle Solaris. Single interface hosts rely on the local routers, not only for packet forwarding but also for receiving valuable configuration information. This section contains a procedure and example for configuring an IPv4 router. Because a router provides the interface between two or more networks, you must assign a unique name and IP address to each of the router's physical network interfaces.
Thus, each router has a host name and an IP address that are associated with its primary network interface, in addition to a minimum of one more unique name and IP address for each additional network interface. You can also use the following procedure to configure a system with only one physical interface by default, a host to be a router. Note - You can configure all interfaces of a router during Oracle Solaris system installation.
The following instructions assume that you are configuring interfaces for the router after installation. After the router is physically installed on the network, configure the router to operate in local files mode, as described in How to Configure a Host for Local Files Mode. This configuration ensures that routers boot if the network configuration server is down.
The Primary Administrator role includes the Primary Administrator profile. The following example output from dladm show-link indicates that a qfe NIC with four interfaces and two bge interfaces are physically available on the system. The following example output from ifconfig -a shows that the interface qfe0 was configured during installation. This interface is on the The remaining interfaces on the qfe NIC, qfe1 - qfe3 , and the bge interfaces have not been configured.
Note - Interfaces that are explicitly configured with the ifconfig command do not persist across reboots. For example, to assign the IP address The interfaces timbuktu and timbuktu are on the same system. Notice that the network address for timbuktu is different from the network interface for timbuktu. The difference exists because the physical network media for network At this point, the router can forward packets beyond the local network.
The router also supports static routing , a process where you can manually add routes to the routing table. If you plan to use static routing on this system, then router configuration is complete. However, you need to maintain routes in the system routing table.
For information on adding routes, see Configuring Routes and the route 1M man page. Turn on the default IPv4 routing protocols in either of the following ways:. For information about the routeadm command, see the routeadm 1M man page. This example shows how to upgrade a system with more than one interface to become a default router.
Router 2 contains two wired network connections, one connection to network The example assumes that the router operates in local files mode, as described in How to Configure a Host for Local Files Mode.
After becoming superuser or assuming an equivalent role, you would determine out the status of the system's interfaces. The output of dladm show-link indicates that three links are available on the system. Only the ce0 interface has been configured with an IP address. You would begin default router configuration by physically connecting the bge0 interface to the Then, you would plumb the interface and make it persist across reboots.
Continue by configuring the following network databases with information about the newly plumbed interface and the network to which it is connected:. Finally, use SMF to enable packet forwarding and then enable the in.
Packet forwarding is the relaying of packets from one network segment to another by nodes in a computer network. The network layer in the OSI model is responsible for packet forwarding. However, other forwarding strategies are commonly used. Broadcasting requires a packet to be duplicated and copies sent on multiple links with the goal of delivering a copy to every device on the network. In practice, broadcast packets are not forwarded everywhere on a network, but only to devices within a broadcast domain , making broadcast a relative term. Less common than broadcasting, but perhaps of greater utility and theoretical significance, is multicasting , where a packet is selectively duplicated and copies delivered to each of a set of recipients. Networking technologies tend to naturally support certain forwarding models.
This article is intended as a general introduction to the concepts of Internet Protocol IP networks and subnetting. A glossary is included at the end of article. These networks are arbitrarily defined into three main classes along with a few others that have predefined sizes. Each of them can be divided into smaller subnetworks by system administrators. A subnet mask is used to divide an IP address into two parts. One part identifies the host computer , the other part identifies the network to which it belongs.
In telecommunications and computer networking , a network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. A packet consists of control information and user data;  the latter is also known as the payload. Control information provides data for delivering the payload e. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers. In packet switching , the bandwidth of the transmission medium is shared between multiple communication sessions, in contrast to circuit switching , in which circuits are preallocated for the duration of one session and data is typically transmitted as a continuous bit stream. In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking , packet strictly refers to a protocol data unit at layer 3, the network layer. In layer 4, the transport layer , the data units are segments and datagrams.
Packet goes from routers to routers. □ For indirect delivery. ▫ The sender uses the destination IP address and a routing table to find the next router's IP address.
Understand TCP/IP addressing and subnetting basics
These IP packets are forwarded across the network from the source to the destination host by devices. At each point on the path between source and destination, a device uses a unicast routing table to make unicast forwarding decisions, based on the IP destination address in the packet. At the other end of the IP communication spectrum is an IP broadcast, where a source host sends packets to all hosts on a network segment. The destination address of an IP broadcast packet has the host portion of the destination IP address set to all ones and the network portion set to the address of the subnet. IP hosts, including devices, understand that packets, which contain an IP broadcast address as the destination address, are addressed to all IP hosts on the subnet.
Switching and Routing. Switching and Routing - Part 1. Switching and Routing - Part 2. Switching and Routing - Part 3.
It has been written to help readers understand the principles of network technologies. Presenting routing and switching basics in depth, it is a valuable resource for information and communications technology ICT practitioners, university students and network technology fans. Huawei is one of the leading ICT solution providers worldwide. Our vision is to enrich life through communication, and it is with this vision that we are able to leverage our ICT technologies and experience to help everyone bridge the digital divide and become a part of the information society so that all may enjoy the benefits of ICT services. We endeavor to popularize ICT, facilitate education, and cultivate ICT talents, providing people with the tools necessary to build a fully connected world.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking , the network layer is layer 3.
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