Flow Assurance In Oil And Gas Production Pdf
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Representative fluid samples are essential to achieving high quality PVT and flow assurance lab analyses. This is especially important when downhole samples are acquired in an oil base mud OBM environment. These high quality samples are also needed to better understand reservoir and fluid behavior throughout the field life.
Flow assurance in Oil-Gas Pipelines
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Reaction Calorimeters. Particle Size Analyzers. Raman Spectrometers. Counter Scales. Self-Service Scales. Checkout Scales. Flow assurance involves a cost-effective approach to produce and transport fluids from the reservoir to a processing facility. During production and transportation of crude oil, knowledge of fluid properties and operating conditions is critical to preventing formation and deposition of undesired solids e. In cases of extreme temperatures and pressures, it is possible that methane gas hydrates crystallize or asphaltenes precipitate in the pipeline.
If not properly controlled, the hydrate crystals, asphaltene, or wax particles may precipitate and agglomerate to the point of plugging the pipeline. Removal of a hydrate or asphaltene plug in a subsea pipeline can be very expensive and dangerous.
Flow assurance challenges are further mounting due to the transition from conventional oil reserves to mature oil fields. As oil fields mature, water fraction increases.
In some cases, operators inject water in mature oil fields to enhance oil recovery. Water-in-crude-oil emulsions further complicate flow assurance strategies. The presence of formation or injection water along with calcium carbonate can lead to scaling under certain conditions.
Calcium carbonate scaling can block the pipeline and foul production equipment further making mature oil fields less profitable. Most of the commercially available hydrate inhibitors anti-agglomerants become less effective as water cut increases. Eventually the emulsion needs to be broken to separate oil and water.
Breaking emulsions via physical or chemical methods can be very costly, especially for heavy oil emulsions that contain emulsion-stabilizing solids such as asphaltenes. Therefore, it is critical to study and develop cost-effective flow assurance strategies to take control of solids and emulsions to minimize economic risks over the life of an oil field.
Asphaltenes are complex mixtures of polyaromatic compounds with heteroatomic species such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur along with organometallics such as iron, nickel, and vanadium. Asphaltenes are typically described as the fraction of crude oil insoluble in alkanes e. Changes in crude oil composition, pressure, and temperature conditions can destabilize asphaltenes. For example, pressure depletion during crude oil production can lead to undesired asphaltene precipitation and deposition in wellbore and reservoirs.
Asphaltene precipitation depends on several parameters, including temperature, pressure, and fluid composition. Similarly, asphaltene deposition in a pipeline can depend on flow rate, interaction between the particles, interaction between the particles and pipe surface, etc. Presented with FMC and the University of Tulsa, this in-depth presentation covers industry examples of optimization in flow assurance, separations, fouling, and tailings management to reduce exploration and production costs in dark crude oil at standard operating temperatures and pressures, without sampling or sample dilution.
Gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline structures formed via complex interaction between oil, gas, and water under high pressure and low temperature. Fundamental knowledge about structural transitions, formation mechanism, and formation kinetics are still unclear for gas hydrates.
Natural conditions necessary for gas hydrate crystallization frequently occur in petroleum pipelines. After hydrate particles nucleate, hydrate growth and agglomeration occurs. These agglomerates can eventually become large enough to create a hydrate plug in the pipeline. Formation of the hydrate plug adversely affects fluid flow, in some extreme cases even complete blockage of the pipeline. Hence, gas hydrate formation have costly implications due to interrupted production via flow restriction or plugging, equipment damage, and safety risks to operators.
Thermodynamic inhibitors THI are industry standards for hydrate prevention despite high cost, environmental concerns, and high operating. Alternatively, less expensive "Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors" LDHI can extend induction time or prevent agglomeration of primary hydrate particles and maintain a transportable slurry.
In order to develop new, cost-effective strategies to manage the hydrates rather than completely prevent their formation, it is critical to develop sound understanding of hydrate crystallization, agglomeration, and deposition mechanisms. Using reliable in situ technologies to monitor real time hydrate crystallization and agglomeration will enable operators to i optimize the use of expensive THI, ii evaluate the reliability of less expensive LDHI, and iii develop robust strategy utilizing both THI and KHI.
Use of LDHI stabilizes hydrates into a well-dispersed mixture right image. Reference: Duy Nguyen et. Probe-based ParticleTrack and ParticleView technologies are ideal for characterizing methane gas hydrates, asphaltene particles, scales, and oil emulsions. The particle and droplet systems are extremely sensitive to temperature and pressure fluctuations. Additionally, offline techniques require that the samples be diluted, which can alter droplet size, reverse hydrate agglomeration, and solubility of asphaltenes.
Even under the conditions when sampling is possible, the measurement of dilute samples is not representative of the actual system and provides a very limited data set. With FBRM and PVM probe technologies, the researcher can track the entire dynamic particle and droplet system in crude oil at standard operating temperatures and pressures, without sampling or sample dilution. ParticleTrack chord length distribution for each agitation rate, enabling operations to target droplet distribution to improve desalter performance.
Droplets are seen in situ in their natural environment without affecting physical integrity of droplets via sampling. In situ ParticleView images can be used to quickly assess the leanness of oil and water phase after the separation. ParticleView and ParticleTrack have been used in Flow Assurance for oil and gas production by leading companies and research groups.
Discover a selection of references below. Gas Hydrate Formation.
Handbook of Multiphase Flow Assurance
Laboratory Weighing. Industrial Scales and Load Cell Systems. Product Inspection. Process Analytics. Analytical Instruments. Automated Reactors and In Situ Analysis.
Al Safran, Eissa M. Al Ansari. Kuwait Oil Company KOC offshore exploration and development plans are underway to boost its production capacity to the future target rate. However, the selection of offshore field development scheme is critical due to the associated flow assurance risks, which impact project economics, safety, and sustainability. The objective of this study is to simulate and evaluate two offshore field development schemes, namely subsea multiphase flow, and platform schemes. The evaluation is based on the associated flow assurance risks, project economics, and environmental impact of each development schemes.
Wasden, Frederic K. Flow assurance issues associated with deepwater flowlines and pipelines remain central to cost-effective field developments. Wax, asphaltene and hydrate plug formation comprise the key concerns; corrosion, erosion and chemical incompatibility issues also fall within the flow assurance umbrella. Driven by the high cost of remediation, including deferred production, operators typically specify development schemes focused on ensuring high tolerance to production chemistry and operational upsets. Confident predictions of operating envelopes assuring a clear flow path appear commonplace; efforts to broaden these envelopes may lead to less costly development schemes and higher degrees of operating freedom. Flow assurance, broadly defined, concerns the ability of a production system to transport produced fluids from the bottom of the tubing through the sales pipeline in a predictable manner over the life of a project.
the main flow assurance problems faced by the oil industry, affecting numerous oil Figure Simulation output of wax deposition profile along the test section onshore oil and gas field developments are waxing, hydrates, asphaltenes, slugging hc4hcommunityfair.org
Flow assurance   is a relatively new term in oil and gas industry. It refers to ensuring successful and economical flow of hydrocarbon stream from reservoir to the point of sale. Flow assurance is extremely diverse, encompassing many discrete and specialized subjects and bridging across the full gamut of engineering disciplines. Besides network modeling and transient multiphase simulation, flow assurance involves effectively handling many solid deposits, such as, gas hydrates,  asphaltene , wax , scale, and naphthenates. The financial loss from production interruption or asset damage due to flow assurance mishap can be astronomical.
Our product formulations are continually assessed to provide the safest products available, while ensuring that the products perform in a cost competitive fashion. SUEZ's comprehensive Asset Integrity chemical and engineered solutions, together with years of expertise, allows us to offer site-specific solutions to effectively address…. Learn more about Asset Integrity. SUEZ offers a full solution flow assurance service to ensure the successful and cost-effective flow of hydrocarbon streams from the reservoir to the point of sale. SUEZ's best-in….
The increasing exploration and production activities in the offshore Cape Three Point Blocks of Ghana have led to the discovery and development of gas condensate fields in addition to the oil fields which produce significant amount of condensate gas. These discoveries require pipelines to transport the fluids avoiding hydrates and wax formation. This paper focuses on subsea pipeline design using Pipesim software that addresses flow assurance problems associated with transporting condensate gas from the Jubilee and TEN Fields to the Atuabo Gas Processing Plant. It also considered an alternate design that eliminates the need for capacity increase of flowlines for the futuristic highest projected flow rates in
Flow assurance is a multidisciplinary process designed to prevent pipe blockage and help ensure uninterrupted and maximized productivity in oil and gas streams. The studies involve sampling, specialized lab testing, and production and facilities engineering.
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