exchange and power in social life pdf

Exchange And Power In Social Life Pdf

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Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

Social exchange theory

Social exchange theory is a sociological and psychological theory that studies the social behavior in the interaction of two parties that implement a cost-benefit analysis to determine risks and benefits. The theory also involves economic relationships—the cost-benefit analysis occurs when each party has goods that the other parties value. The most comprehensive social exchange theories are those of the American social psychologists John W.

Thibaut — and Harold H. Kelley — , the American sociologists George C. Homans — , Peter M. Blau — , Richard Marc Emerson d. Blau and Richard M. Emerson, who in addition to Homans are generally thought of as the major developers of the exchange perspective within sociology. Although there are various modes of exchange, Homans centered his studies on dyadic exchange. Thibaut and Kelley based their theory principally on small groups related with dyadic relationships.

Additionally, they suggest that an individual can unilaterally affect her or his own outcomes in a relationship through chosen behaviors. They could predict the possible course of a social interaction through the analysis of aspects of power in an encounter. They also experimented on how the outcomes received in a relationship could define a person's attractions to relationships.

Homans based his theory on concepts of equilibration, expectancy and distributive justice in dyadic exchange. With this, he tries to explain the social interaction in small groups and the rewards received proportional to their costs and investments.

Homans summarizes the system in three propositions: success, stimulus, and deprivation—satiation proposition, [7] described below. However, he uses more economics terms and it is based principally on emergent social structure in social exchange patterns in small groups. He contributed to the idea of distinguishing between social and economic exchanges and exchange and power. The goal of his theory was to identify complex and simple processes without ignoring emergent properties.

Emerson was inspired by Homans and Blau's ideas. He focused on the interaction and relationship between individuals and parties. His view of social exchange theory emphasizes the resource availability, power, and dependence as primary dynamics. He thought that relations were organized in different manners, and they could differ depending on the type and amount of the resources exchanged. He poses the idea that power and dependence are the main aspects that define a relationship. Social exchange theorist in anthropology.

He is recognized for contributing to the emergence of this theoretical perspective from his work on anthropology focused on systems of generalized exchange, such as kinship systems and gift exchange. He based his kinship systems on Mauss's investigation. As it works in the form of indirect reciprocities, Levi-Strauss suggest the concept of generalized exchange. Self-interest and interdependence are central properties of social exchange. To him, the meaning of individual self-interest is a combination of economic and psychological needs.

They developed a theoretical framework based on the interdependence of actors. They also highlighted social implications of different forms of interdependence such as reciprocal control. Social exchange theory views exchange as a social behavior that may result both in economic and social outcomes. The study of the theory from the microeconomics perspective is attributed to Blau. Blau stated that once this concept is understood, it is possible to observe social exchanges everywhere, not only in market relations, but also in other social relations like friendship.

The major difference between social and economic exchange is the nature of the exchange between parties. Neoclassic economic theory views the actor as dealing not with another actor but with a market and environmental parameters, such as market price.

Simple social exchange models assume that rewards and costs drive relationship decisions. The elements of relational life include:. Costs are the elements of relational life that have negative value to a person, such as the effort put into a relationship and the negatives of a partner.

Rewards are the elements of a relationship that have positive value. Rewards can be sense of acceptance, support, and companionship etc. As with everything dealing with the social exchange theory, it has as its outcome satisfaction and dependence of relationships. The social-exchange perspective argues that people calculate the overall worth of a particular relationship by subtracting its costs from the rewards it provides.

If worth is a positive number, it is a positive relationship. On the contrary, a negative number indicates a negative relationship. The worth of a relationship influences its outcome, or whether people will continue with a relationship or terminate it.

Positive relationships are expected to endure, whereas negative relationships will probably terminate. In a mutually beneficial exchange, each party supplies the wants of the other party at lower cost to self than the value of the resources the other party provides. In such a model, mutual relationship satisfaction ensures relationship stability. Homans based his theory on behaviorism to conclude that people pursue rewards to minimize costs.

The "satisfactory-ness" of the rewards that a party gains from an exchange relationship is judged relative to some standard, which may vary from party to party. Summarized by Gouldner, the reciprocity norm states that a benefit should be returned and the one who gives the benefit should not be harmed. This is used to stabilize relationships and to identify the egoism. This norm suggests the independence in relationships and invite the individual to consider more than one's self-interest.

Altman and D. Taylor's: They introduce the social penetration theory , which states the nature and quality of social exchange and close bonds. It suggests once the individuals start to give more of themselves to one another, relationships progress progressively from exchanging superficial goods to others more meaningful. Equity can be defined as the balance between a person's inputs and outcomes on the job.

Some examples of inputs can be qualifications, promotions, interest on the job and how hard one works. Some outcomes can be pay, fringe benefits, and power status. The individual will mainly expect an equitable input-outcome ratio. Inequity happens when the individual apperceives an unbalanced ratio of their outcomes and other's outcomes.

This can occur in a direct exchange of the two parties, or there can be a third party involved. An individual's point of view of equity or inequity can differ depending on the individual. The basis of social exchange theory is to explain social change and stability as a process of negotiating exchanges between parties. These changes can occur over a person's life course through the various relationships, opportunities, and means of support.

An example of this is the convoy model of support, this model uses concentric circles to describe relationships around an individual with the strongest relationships in the closet circle. As a person ages, these relationships form a convoy that moves along with the person and exchanges in support and assistance through different circumstances that occur.

Within this model, there are different types of support Social support a person can receive, those being intangible, tangible, instrumental, and informational. Intangible support can either be social or emotional and can be love, friendship and appreciation that comes with valuable relationships.

Tangible support are physical gifts given to someone such as land, gifts, money, transportation, food, and completing chores. Instrumental support are services given to someone in a relationship. Finally, informational support is the delivering of information that is helpful to an individual. Ivan Nye came up with twelve theoretical propositions that aid in understanding the exchange theory.

In his article published in , Nye originally proposed seven propositions that were common in all types of relationship, A few years later he would expand the propositions to a total of twelve. The first five propositions listed are classified as general propositions and are substance free-meaning, the propositions themselves can stand alone within the theory.

Proposition number six has been identified by scholars as a notion that there is a general assumption of a need for social approval as a reward and can therefore act as a drive force behind actions. Proposition seven will only work if the individual has the freedom to be excluded from outside factors while in a social exchange relationship. The twelfth and final proposition is directed towards the way our society has a heightened value placed on monetary funds.

Even though Homans took an individualistic approach, a major goal of his work was to explicate the micro-foundations of social structures and social exchange.

By studying such forms of behavior he hoped to illuminate the informal sub-institutional bases of more complex social behavior, typically more formal and often institutionalized. His vision of the underpinnings of social structure and institutional forms is linked to the actions of individuals, for example to their responses to rewarding and punishment circumstances.

Homans developed five key propositions that assist in structuring individuals' behaviors based on rewards and costs. This set of theoretical ideas represents the core of Homans's version of social exchange theory. Based on economics, Frazer's theory about social exchange emphasizes the importance of power and status differentiations in social exchange. Frazer's theory had a particular interest in the cross-cousin marriage. With his Kula exchange, Malinowski drew a sharp differentiation between economic exchange and social exchange.

Using his Kula exchange, Malinowski states that the motives of exchange can be mainly social and psychological. Mauss's theory tries to identify the role played by morality and religion in the social exchange. Mauss argues the exchange found in the society is influenced by social behaviors, while morality and religion influence all aspects of life. Bohannan focuses his theory on economic problems such as multicentrism, and modes of exchange.

He contributed to the social exchange theory finding the role and function of markets in tribal subsistence economies, makes a distinction of economic redistribution and market exchange from social relationships.

He proposes three principles to create a new idea for socioeconomic change, transforming traditional economies, and political economic development. These principles are: reciprocity, redistribution and marketing. He presents the idea that the economy is a category of behavior instead of just a simple category of culture. Social exchange theory is not one theory but a frame of reference within which many theories can speak to another, whether in argument or mutual support.

Thibaut and Kelley have based their theory on two conceptualizations: one that focuses on the nature of individuals and one that describes the relationships between two people.

Social Exchange Theory

Spearheaded by researcher Albert Bandura, this view combines. In particular, sociological theory is interested in understanding the idea of social order and what causes social change. In the case of subjective well-being, four main. It represents a move from the global, aspatial, top-down strategies that dominated early development initiatives to more locally sensitive methodologies Storey Conflict theory examines any social phenomenon through the lens that there is a natural human instinct towards conflict. Sociological Theory Pdf.

Handbook of Social Psychology pp Cite as. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

Social exchange theory is a sociological and psychological theory that studies the social behavior in the interaction of two parties that implement a cost-benefit analysis to determine risks and benefits. The theory also involves economic relationships—the cost-benefit analysis occurs when each party has goods that the other parties value. The most comprehensive social exchange theories are those of the American social psychologists John W. Thibaut — and Harold H. Kelley — , the American sociologists George C.

Social exchange theory

Kurt W. Back, Exchange and Power in Social Life. By Peter M.

Handbook of Sociological Theory pp Cite as.

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Еще через четыре месяца Энсей Танкадо приступил к работе в Отделении криптографии Агентства национальной безопасности США. Несмотря на солидный заработок, Танкадо ездил на службу на стареньком мопеде и обедал в одиночестве за своим рабочим столом, вместо того чтобы вместе с сослуживцами поглощать котлеты из телятины и луковый суп с картофелем - фирменные блюда местной столовой. Энсей пользовался всеобщим уважением, работал творчески, с блеском, что дано немногим. Он был добрым и честным, выдержанным и безукоризненным в общении.

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Sociological Theory Pdf

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