Edible And Medicinal Mushrooms Pdf
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- Edible mushroom
- Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life
- Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life
- Fifteen fungicolous Ascomycetes on edible and medicinal mushrooms in China and Thailand
Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases.
Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke.
They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.
Mushrooms have been considered as ingredient of gourmet cuisine across the globe; especially for their unique flavor and have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder. More than 2, species of mushrooms exist in nature, but around 25 are widely accepted as food and few are commercially cultivated.
Mushrooms are considered as a delicacy with high nutritional and functional value, and they are also accepted as nutraceutical foods; they are of considerable interest because of their organoleptic merit, medicinal properties, and economic significance [ 1 , 2 ].
However, there is not an easy distinction between edible and medical mushrooms because many of the common edible species have therapeutic properties and several used for medical purposes are also edible [ 3 ].
The most cultivated mushroom worldwide is Agaricus bisporus , followed by Lentinus edodes , Pleurotus spp. Mushrooms production continuously increases, China being the biggest producer around the world [ 1 , 4 , 5 ].
However, wild mushrooms are becoming more important for their nutritional, sensory, and especially pharmacological characteristics [ 2 ]. Mushrooms could be an alternative source of new antimicrobial compounds, mainly secondary metabolites, such as terpenes, steroids, anthraquinones, benzoic acid derivatives, and quinolones, but also of some primary metabolites like oxalic acid, peptides, and proteins.
Lentinus edodes is the most studied species and seems to have an antimicrobial action against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria [ 6 ]. They have a great nutritional value since they are quite rich in protein, with an important content of essential amino acids and fiber, poor fat but with excellent important fatty acids content Table 1. Moreover, edible mushrooms provide a nutritionally significant content of vitamins B1, B2, B12, C, D, and E [ 7 , 8 ].
Thus, they could be an excellent source of many different nutraceuticals and might be used directly in human diet and to promote health for the synergistic effects of all the bioactive compounds present [ 9 — 13 ]. A large variety of mushrooms have been utilized traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health, as well as in the prevention and treatment of diseases through their immunomodulatory and antineoplastic properties.
In the last decade, the interest for pharmaceutical potential of mushrooms has been increased rapidly, and it has been suggested that many mushrooms are like mini-pharmaceutical factories producing compounds with miraculous biological properties [ 5 , 14 ].
In addition, the expanded knowledge of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and metastasis has given the opportunity for discovering new drugs against abnormal molecular and biochemical signals leading to cancer [ 15 ].
More than medicinal functions are produced by mushrooms and fungi and the key medicinal uses are antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiallergic, immunomodulating, cardiovascular protector, anticholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, detoxification, and hepatoprotective effects; they also protect against tumor development and inflammatory processes [ 16 — 19 ].
Numerous molecules synthesized by macrofungi are known to be bioactive, and these bioactive compounds found in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth are polysaccharides, proteins, fats, minerals, glycosides, alkaloids, volatile oils, terpenoids, tocopherols, phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, folates, lectins, enzymes, ascorbic, and organic acids, in general.
A balanced diet is the supporting treatment for the prevention of illness and especially against oxidative stress. In this context, mushrooms have a long history of use in the oriental medicine to prevent and fight numerous diseases. Nowadays, mushroom extracts are commercialized as dietary supplements for their properties, mainly for the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity [ 3 , 9 , 11 , 17 , 21 — 26 ].
In this work, we aimed to review the nutritional value as well as the chemical and nutraceutical composition, and commercial potentialities of the most cultivated edible mushrooms worldwide. The nutritional value of edible mushrooms is due to their high protein, fiber, vitamin and mineral contents, and low-fat levels [ 8 , 10 ]. They are very useful for vegetarian diets because they provide all the essential amino acids for adult requirements; also, mushrooms have higher protein content than most vegetables.
Besides, edible mushrooms contain many different bioactive compounds with various human health benefits [ 27 , 28 ]. It is important to remark that the growth characteristics, stage and postharvest condition may influence the chemical composition and the nutritional value of edible mushrooms.
Also, great variations occur both among and within species [ 29 , 30 ]. Additionally, glucose, mannitol, and trehalose are abundant sugars in cultivated edible mushrooms, but fructose and sucrose are found in low amounts. Mushrooms are also a good source of vitamins with high levels of riboflavin vitamin B2 , niacin, folates, and traces of vitamin C, B1, B12, D and E. Mushrooms are the only nonanimal food source that contains vitamin D and hence they are the only natural vitamin D ingredients for vegetarians.
Wild mushrooms are generally excellent sources of vitamin D2 unlike cultivated ones; usually cultivated mushrooms are grown in darkness and UV-B light is needed to produce vitamin D2 [ 3 , 8 , 29 — 34 ].
In addition to the nutritional components found in edible mushrooms, some have been found to comprise important amounts of bioactive compounds. The content and type of biologically active substances may vary considerably in edible mushrooms; their concentrations of these substances are affected by differences in strain, substrate, cultivation, developmental stage, age, storage conditions, processing, and cooking practices [ 8 — 10 ].
New proteins with biological activities have also been found, which can be used in biotechnological processes and for the development of new drugs, including lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, lectins, proteases and protease inhibitors, ribosome-inactivating proteins, and hydrophobins [ 35 ].
In China, many species of edible wild-grown mushrooms, that is Tricholoma matsutake, Lactarius hatsudake , Boletus aereus , are appreciated as food and also in traditional Chinese medicine. The rich amount of proteins, carbohydrates, essential minerals, and low energy levels contributes to considering many wild-grown mushrooms as good food for the consumer, which can virtually be compared with meat, eggs, and milk [ 36 ].
Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from medicinal mushrooms appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. A wide range of these mushroom polymers have been reported previously to have immunotherapeutic properties by facilitating growth inhibition and destruction of tumor cells.
Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. A total of medicinal functions are thought to be produced by selected mushrooms [ 37 ]. Polysaccharides are the best known and most potent mushroom derived substances with antitumor and immunomodulating properties. Data on mushroom polysaccharides have been collected from hundreds of different species of higher basidiomycetes; some specific carbohydrates with these properties have been quantified in different mushrooms: rhamnose, xylose, fucose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, mannose, mannitol, sucrose, maltose, and trehalose Table 2 [ 11 , 15 , 38 , 39 ].
The antitumor polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms are acidic or neutral, with strong antitumor action and differ significantly in their chemical structures. A wide range of glycans extending from homopolymers to highly complex heteropolymers exhibits antitumoral activity.
Mushroom polysaccharides have antitumor action by activation of the immune response of the host organism, in other words, mushroom polysaccharides do not directly kill tumor cells. This is important for the industry because many of them are excreted into the cell growth medium, making their recovery, purification and chemical characterization very simple [ 41 — 43 ].
Also, they are recognized as potent immunological stimulators in humans, and it has been demonstrated their capacity for treating several diseases. They also protect from infectious diseases and cancer and aid patients recovery from chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Besides, these compounds are also beneficial to middle-age people, people with active and stressful lifestyles, and athletes. A large variability can be observed in mushroom species and their concentration ranges from 0. Hence, activating and reinforcing the host immune system seem to be the best strategy for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells [ 17 , 51 ]. Bioactive proteins are an important part of functional components in mushrooms and also have great value for their pharmaceutical potential.
Mushrooms produce a large number of proteins and peptides with interesting biological activities such as lectins, fungal immunomodulatory proteins, ribosome inactivating proteins, antimicrobial proteins, ribonucleases, and laccases [ 52 ].
Lectins are nonimmune proteins or glycoproteins binding specifically to cell surface carbohydrates and in the past few years many mushroom lectins have been discovered [ 53 ]. They have many pharmaceutical activities and possess immunomodulatory properties, antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. Some of them exhibit highly potent antiproliferative activity toward some tumor cell lines human leukemic T cells, hepatoma Hep G2 cells, and breast cancer MCF7 cells [ 52 , 54 ].
Fungal immunomodulatory proteins are a new family of bioactive proteins isolated from mushrooms, which have shown a potential application as adjuvants for tumor immunotherapy mainly due to their activity in suppressing tumor invasion and metastasis [ 55 ]. Xu et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are mostly contained in edible mushrooms; thus, they may contribute to the reduction of serum cholesterol. It is noteworthy that transisomers of unsaturated fatty acids have not been detected in mushrooms Table 3 [ 3 , 9 ].
The major sterol produced by edible mushrooms is ergosterol, which shows antioxidant properties [ 3 ]. It has been observed that a diet rich in sterols is important in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases [ 29 ]. Tocopherols, found in the lipidic fraction, are natural antioxidants because they act as free radical scavenging peroxyl components produced from different reactions. These antioxidants have high biological activity for protection against degenerative malfunctions, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.
Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid to humans, takes part in a wide range of physiological functions; it reduces cardiovascular diseases, triglyceride levels, blood pressure, and arthritis [ 11 , 30 , 38 , 56 ]. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites possessing an aromatic ring with one or more hydroxyl groups, and their structures can be a simple phenolic molecule or a complex polymer.
They exhibit a wide range of physiological properties, such as antiallergenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, cardioprotective, and vasodilator effects. The main characteristic of this group of compounds has been related to its antioxidant activity because they act as reducing agents, free radical scavengers, singlet oxygen quenchers, or metal ion chelators [ 11 , 38 , 57 ].
Phenolic compounds provide protection against several degenerative disorders, including brain dysfunction, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. This property is related to their capacity to act as antioxidants; they can scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The process of oxidation is essential for living organisms; it is necessary for the production of energy. However, the generation of free radicals has been implicated in several human diseases. The phenolic compounds in mushrooms show excellent antioxidant capacity [ 17 , 58 — 61 ].
Palacios et al. Heleno et al. This group of edible mushrooms is nowadays widely used and studied for its medicinal and therapeutic properties [ 40 , 63 , 64 ]. A lectin from A. Its fruit bodies exhibit antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and immunostimulative activities [ 67 , 68 ]; its extracts have also shown immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic properties [ 69 ].
Additionally, it has been reported that this mushroom blocks the liver lipid peroxidation. Al-Dbass et al. On the other hand, Hakime-Silva et al. Moreover, liquid extracts of this fungus inhibit cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells and oral supplementation suppressing significantly tumor growth without inducing adverse effects. In , Carneiro et al. These formulations may be used in low-calorie diets and have shown high antioxidant activity with high content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds.
In view of the previous studies, this fungus has been used as a healthy food for the prevention of a range of illnesses including cancer, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and chronic hepatitis [ 70 , 72 ]. It produces various bioactive compounds that have potential to treat many diseases and has been used as a medicinal food for the prevention of cancer, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and chronic hepatitis.
Some of its beneficial properties are the reduction of tumor growth, antimicrobial and antiviral activities, immunostimulatory and antiallergy effects. The antitumor activity has been found in lipid fractions, that is, ergosterol [ 63 , 72 , 73 ]. It has been utilized to alleviate the common cold for hundreds of years and some scientific evidence has supported this belief [ 8 ]. Finimundy et al.
These extracts significantly decreased cell proliferation on tumor as well. Manzi and Pizzoferrato [ 50 ] reported that L.
Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life
By clicking register, I agree to your terms. All rights reserved. Design by w3layouts. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development.
Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life
In Burundi, minimum work has been done to comprehensively identify and commercialize high yielding local mushrooms. The previous studies carried out on mushroom cultivation have focused on exotic strains. This is the first study undertaken on domestication of wild edible mushrooms from Burundi indigenous forests. Nine samples were collected from four protected areas and characterized using phenotypic and molecular markers. Germoplasm isolation through tissue culture techniques, spawn production and cultivation studies were also undertaken.
Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine.
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Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
Fifteen fungicolous Ascomycetes on edible and medicinal mushrooms in China and Thailand
There are about species of mushrooms, which have a high amount of substances that are beneficial to human health, such as antioxidants. It is well known that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and diseases of the central nervous system. One way to prevent homeostasis disorders that occur as a result of excessive production of pro-oxidative substances is to include the ingredients having antioxidant properties in the diet. Several compounds, such as those with phenolic and indole derivatives as well as carotenoids and some vitamins, exhibit antioxidant activity.
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PDF | This paper, which was delivered during the recently held " International Training Course on Edible Mushroom Production for Asian Farmers and | Find.
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