modern engineering materials and their application pdf

Modern Engineering Materials And Their Application Pdf

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To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Introduction to Engineering Material and their Applications. Ahmad Mukhtar. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Selection of material to the economy working and the life of machinery. The subject of engineering material has been designed to overcome the above aspects. Engineering material can be defined as "Engineering material is a subject which deals with the manufacturing, properties and uses of material used in applied engineering.

Forexample Alloys for air craft, Semi-conductor chips for pc, Photovoltaic for energy storage, Semi-conductor, Semiconductor scanners. Metallic materials are inorganic substances which are composed one or more metallic elements and also contain some non metallic elements. Metals are usually found in the form of ores which are raw or crude form impurities includes oxides, sulphides, nitrites, sulphates and traces elements like inert gasses.

Ferrous materials are usually refers to the materials that have a high content of iron in them. Ferrous compounds are usually garnished in color.

Classifications of Engineering Materials on the basis of Atomic Bonding Forces: Occurrence of Iron:Iron is never available in pure form it is available in the form of different ores the most common ore is hematite various form of iron and steel are obtained by purifying and adjusting the composition of pig iron by suitable methods.

Iron is extracted from hematite or the separation of iron by reduction with carbon is very reactive. This process takes place in a blast furnace at c 0. To remove the impurities from the ores some treatments are necessary. Carbon is added by melting it the product obtained is called pig iron. Cast Iron:When we melt the pig iron in the presence of coke and calcium carbonate the product obtained is called cast iron. It has gray white color its gray color is due to the presence of graphite and white due to the presence of carbon carbides.

It can be transferred into different molds of desired shapes and size. Wrought Iron:It is the purest form of iron. It contains In wrought iron corrosion will be large.

It is the most common type of iron used in engineering. Steel:Steels are the large family of metals which consists mostly of iron and other elements usually carbon ranging 0.

Steel goes harder and tougher with a n increase in carbon content up to 1. When a force is subjected to an engineering material it may result in translation, rotation and deformation of that material. Aspects of translation and rotation of materials are deled by engineering dynamics. We restrict our cells here to the subject of materials under deformation forces. For example when using a rope to lift a load. Compression:Compression is developed within a material when forces compress or crush the materials.

For example a column that supports an overhead beam is in compression. Shear:Shear occurs within a material when external forces are applied in parallel lines but in opposite directions. Shear force can separate the materials by sliding part of it in one direction and rest of part is in opposite direction. Shear stress in this case is the function of applied torque.

Shear strain is related to the angle of twist. In short torsion is twisting any object due to an applied torque. Permanent deformation is irreversible and stays even after the removal of applied forces such a deformation is called as plastic deformation while the temporary deformation is reversible and disappears after the removal of applied forces such a deformation is called as elastic deformation.

So elastic deformation is recoverable. Both kinds of deformation can be a function of time or independent of time. Inelastic Deformation:Time dependent recoverable deformation under load is called as inelastic deformation. Creep:Time dependent progressive permanent deformation under constant load is called creep.

Stress:When a material is subjected to an external force it will either totally comply with that force and be pushed away or it will set up the internal forces to oppose that forces. Solid materials are generally act wither like a spring when stressed or compressed the internal forces come into play as it is easily seen when spring is released.

A material is subjected to an external force that tends to stretch it is called as tension. Whereas forces which squeeze the material are put in compression. Strain:The material in tension or compression change its length and change in length compared to the original length is refers to as strain. Since strain is the ratio of two lengths so it has no units and it frequently expressed as percentage. Hooke's Law:Hooke's law states that the tension of spring is direct proportion with the load added to it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit.

Materials obeying the Hooke's law are known as linear elastic or Hookean materials. If a spring is gradually stretched the force needed to increase but the material spring that to its original shape when the force is increased. Materials that obey Hooke's law exhibit a linear relationship between stress and strain. This linear relationship between stress and strain can be shown in the form of a graph as this graph shows that as we increase or decrease the stress the strain also increase or decrease with same proportion respectively.

So both are directly proportional to each other. Many materials following Hooke's law until a certain level of stress has been applied after which the material will distort more severely. The point at which the straight line behavior ceases is called limit of proportionality.

Beyond this the material will not spring back to its original shape and said to exhibit some plastic behavior. This stress at which the material starts to exhibits permanent deformation is called elastic limit or yield point. If stress is increased beyond yield point the sample will eventually break. Young's Modulus:It is the description of an object or substance's tendency to deform elastically when the force is applied to it. Young's modulus of an object is defined as, the slope of its stress and strain curve in the elastic deformation region.

The slope of stress over strain graph varies with stress so we gradually take the slope of initial straight line portion. The units of young's modulus are those of stress since strain has no units. It is the one of the important property of metals. When metals are heated they expand and become larger while cooling the metals causes them to contract or shrink in size. It is very important for metals that are used in process industry to consider temperature changes and how they affect the metals.

Metal density is very important factor in different structures i. We measure the amount of penetration and then compare it with the standard scale for ferrous metals which are usually harder than the non ferrous metals a diamond strip is used which is indicated by a Rockwell number represented by C.

Toughness of metal should be able to absorb energy up to fracture. It enables materials with stand shocks and to be deformed without rupturing when a rod is bend its outer surface is stretches and the inside radius of the rod is compresses the more a material is bends the more outer surface is stretches an inner radius is contracts a tough material is one that gives relatively small changes in length when subjected to tension and compression in the other words the small value of stress over strain.

Tough materials are desirables to vehicles, machines and large structures. Elasticity is the ability of the materials to return in to its original shape after the load is removed theoretically the elastic limit of a material is the limit to which material is loaded and still recovers its original shape after the load is removed.

Ductile metals are vitals in creating wires or tubes because of its easy of forming. While cast iron and cast aluminum very hard steel and glass is the one of the best example of the brittle materials. Generally a brittle metal are very high in the compression strength and in tensile strength. Brittle metals are not suitable for the heavy loads as they could break easily and can cause the damage.

Here metals are liquefied and then joined together when it becomes harden it becomes one piece. Steel liquefy at o F while aluminum alloy at o F. It occurs as the result of the long term exposure to a high level of stress that are below the yield point of the material. Creep is more swear in materials that are subjected to heat for the long periods and near the melting points.

Creep is always increases with the temperature the rate of this deformation is a function of materials properties exposure times' exposure temperature and applied structural loads. Creep deformation is the time dependent deformation. The temperature ranges in which the creep deformation may occur is different in various metals. Non Ferrous Materials Introduction:Ferrous materials are usually refers to the materials that have a low content of iron in them.

Some important non ferrous metals are aluminum, copper, lead, tin and zinc. Aluminum:Aluminum found its maximum use in every field of engineering due to its particular properties softness, lightweight it has become very useful metal in all over the world.

Modified metallurgical processes have improved strength and durability of different metals to such an extent that it has made maximum use of aluminum in engineering processes. Copper:Copper is one of the most widely used metal but due to its high price we use it with some limitations in engineering work.

Tin:Tin is very common metal in the family of non ferrous metals. It is mostly use as a protection layer for the protection of different metals. Zinc:Zinc is commonly use as a protective metal or in making alloys. Ferrous Alloys Introduction:Alloys are usually the combination of metallic alloys is a metallic solution composed of two or more materials alloying you to add one metal into other one or more metals or non metals in molten state and then allow freezing.

An alloy is generally prepared to increase strength, hardness, toughness, resistance to corrosion, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, Ferrous Alloys:Ferrous alloys has iron as major component chromium, vanadium, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum and manganese are metals that forms ferrous alloys with iron.

Introduction to Engineering Material and their Applications

Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Materials can be broadly classified as Polymer, Metal and Ceramics, as they find wide array of application, starting from automotive, electronic , biomedical, pharmaceutical , construction, aerospace sector to defense ,technical textiles and sports. This paper reviews the analysis of , the advancement in manufacturing process , properties of carbon fibers and along with their high end application ….. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and exploiting their properties, the aim is instead to understand materials so that new materials with the desired properties can be created.

Materials can be broadly classified as Polymer, Metal and Ceramics, as they find wide array of application, starting from automotive, electronic , biomedical, pharmaceutical , construction, aerospace sector to defense ,technical textiles and sports. This paper reviews the analysis of , the advancement in manufacturing process , properties of carbon fibers and along with their high end application.. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and exploiting their properties, the aim is instead to understand materials so that new materials with the desired properties can be created. The basis of materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical.

Metallurgy

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Materials can be broadly classified as Polymer, Metal and Ceramics, as they find wide array of application, starting from automotive, electronic , biomedical, pharmaceutical , construction, aerospace sector to defense ,technical textiles and sports. This paper reviews the analysis of , the advancement in manufacturing process , properties of carbon fibers and along with their high end application.. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and exploiting their properties, the aim is instead to understand materials so that new materials with the desired properties can be created. The basis of materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical.

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Modern Engineering Materials

Materials can be broadly classified as Polymer, Metal and Ceramics, as they find wide array of application, starting from automotive, electronic , biomedical, pharmaceutical , construction, aerospace sector to defense ,technical textiles and sports. This paper reviews the analysis of , the advancement in manufacturing process , properties of carbon fibers and along with their high end application.. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and exploiting their properties, the aim is instead to understand materials so that new materials with the desired properties can be created. The basis of materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms.

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