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- Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Plants: Case Studies in China
- Sewage Treatment Plant Operation And Maintenance Manual
- Military Engineer Services
Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Plants: Case Studies in China
Veolia Water Systems Pty Ltd disallows the reproduction of this document or its contents to be divulged without written permission.
This manual must be clearly understood before plant installation, start-up and operation can commence. This document has been written with the intention to provide all the required information to the operating staff, in order for competent operation and maintenance of the plant.
This plant should be operated and serviced by trained persons only. These activities are all undertaken from the company's offices in South Africa, Botswana and Namibia.
VWS Envig specialises in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of water and wastewater treatment plants and offers a full range of operational contracts including technical assistance, complete outsourcing, and financing of projects.
VWS Envig is recognised worldwide for its water treatment expertise. VWS constructed all steel work and provided all process and mechanical equipment including the design guidelines of the civil structures for the sewage treatment plant. VWS also constructed the steel work for the treated effluent sump including supply of pumps and piping within the contract battery limits. Guidelines were given to the civil engineer for design of the diversion sump, float valve sump and effluent sump.
Trickling filter technology was chosen because it constitutes simple but extremely versatile technology, does not require skilled operators and produces a final effluent of high quality that can be discharged back into the environment or re-used as irrigation water for gardening or to grow selective crops.
Major treatment components in this plant include rough screening, anaerobic digestion in a septic tank, carbon removal and nitrification in a trickling filter, sludge removal by means of a secondary clarifier, and disinfection in a chlorine contact tank. The final effluent is stored in a reservoir for recirculation to the process plant or irrigation purposes. Warning: Untreated sludge should not be discharged directly into stream, rivers or dams due to the possibility of presence of diseases, worms, etc.
The parameters can not be guaranteed due to these being dependant on the effluent supply content. Further treatment processes might have to be added dependant on the supply effluent analysis. The plant includes all unit processes and treatment components required to accomplish rough screening before entering the septic tank, primary treatment, carbon removal and nitrification, solids removal secondary settling and disinfection chlorination.
Raw sewage from the inlet pipe to the oxidation ponds is diverted from a sump above the trickling filter plant. From the diversion sump it flows through a float valve sump which is equipped with a flow control valve and float valve which will shut the flow to the trickling filter plant to prevent overflow during power outages.
The following section describes the process and equipment that is provided. Please also refer to the included process and instrumentation diagram. An effluent treatment plant to serve a mining community with shift workers must cater for extreme fluctuations in flow and load throughout the year.
This requires great flexibility if a biological treatment plant is employed. New generation trickling filter technology in conjunction with a septic tank to serve as buffer tank was considered to be the most appropriate technology for this application. Trickling filters employ fixed film technology, which can accommodate considerable fluctuations in flow and load biological , incorporate simple technology and require no process control. The trickling filter design incorporates continuous recirculation through and wetting of the media, even during times of low or no inflow.
This ensures that the bioculture is kept alive during times of low or no inflow. Also, part of the mixed liquor outflow from the trickling filter is recycled.
Solids removal in a secondary clarifier CT Tag No. Access for an operator with a wheelbarrow is provided next to the inlet box.
Once per day, the operator has to rake trapped matter screenings with the rake onto the drip tray and leave this to dewater until the next day.
The semi-dry screenings from the previous day should be discarded at a suitable waste disposal site or incinerated. VWS Tag No. Capacity Flow control Screening : 1 Split box with inlet to each of two septic tank compartments : CT : Concrete structure : 2.
Solids and sludge settle out and are digested in the first compartment of this tank, while the second and third compartment mainly contains grey water. Additionally, aerobic sludge from the secondary settler is recycled to the inlet box, to be further digested in the septic tank.
This reduces the overall sludge volume produced in the biological system. Occasionally, the sludge accumulated in the septic tank must be removed.
The amount of sludge accumulated in especially the first compartment of each train of the septic tank has to be assessed at least every six months. This is further described in Section 2. When approx. Only the sludge and scum in the first compartment needs to be removed by pumping it out.
To remove this sludge, the operator can use his own desludge pump or he may use one of the trickling filter feed pumps which is on standby for this purpose. The effluent from the septic tank is discharged into the recycle sump CT During times of no inflow to the plant, there will be no discharge from the septic tank into this sump.
The pumps will then continue recirculating water from the trickling filter basin through the recycle sump back to the filter media, ensuring that the biomass on the media is kept wet and alive. The pumps are fitted with a run dry protection level switch LS LL.
If the period of non-inflow to the plant is very long, it can be expected that water will be lost through evaporation and the level in this sump will drop. To then prevent the pump s from running dry, they will be switched off trip at low low-level. Should the plant receive inflow again, the level in the sump will rise and the level switch LS L will switch the pump s on automatically. This also ensures that no operator will be required to switch the plant on or off.
An access platform is provided for manual valve operation and for maintenance purposes on the pumps, valves and level switches within the recycle sump. The wastewater is sprayed over and percolates through the media. Organic material in the wastewater is absorbed by micro-organisms growing as a biological film on the media.
In the outer portion of the film, aerobic organisms degrade organic material, whereas anaerobic organisms exist deeper into the biological film, i. The new generation trickling filter is provided with a bed of approximately 80 m per module inside dimension of each module 2.
Water effluent from the trickling filter feed sump recycle sump CT is distributed not necessarily evenly and sprayed over the top surface of the media using a simple system of open, non-clogging nozzles positioned on a mm OD uPVC header. The water then percolates through the media. The orifice sizes of the nozzles have been set to 18mm. The uPVC header is equipped with flushing valves on the ends of each leg.
The reason for an aerobic and anaerobic layer being established is an increase in the thickness of the microbial layer, causing the diffused oxygen to be consumed before it can penetrate the full depth of the microbial layer. Therefore, oxygen only reaches the outer layer of micro organisms resulting in aerobic conditions, whereas deeper into the biological film no oxygen is available resulting in anaerobic conditions.
Figure 3 demonstrates this principle. Biological solids that have become detached from the packing media must be removed before the effluent is disinfected and can be finally discharged.
Removal of the biomass is achieved in a conventional, secondary settling tank. A simple system of non-clogging, open nozzles will be used to distribute the water from the recycle sump over the top of the media.
Organic material in the wastewater is absorbed by the micro-organisms growing as a biological film on the media and ammonia nitrogen is converted to nitrites and nitrates. The trickling filter basins are each fitted with 45 V-Notch weirs to control the level in the system.
The sludge is collected in the bottom cone of the clarifier and pressed through a 63mm discharge pipe by means of hydrostatic pressure. The sludge is allowed to periodically drain back into the feed pipe of the inlet screen by opening a sludge discharge valve XV The sludge recycling frequency can be changed by modifying the opening and closing duration of this actuator. These levels are however set by the process engineer during commissioning and should not be changed by the operator.
Biological solids that have become detached from the packing media have to be removed before the effluent is disinfected and can be finally discharged. The hydraulics of the plant will ensure that water from the trickling filter basin will only overflow into the secondary settling tank if there is inflow into the plant.
This tank is sized for an effective contact time in excess of the required 20 min at PF. The contact channel is fitted with fibre cement boards channelling the effluent in such a way that it makes six direction changes before discharge to ensure effective mixing of chlorine and effluent.
Dosing pump PD is injecting chlorine at ppm through an injection valve located at the inlet of the contact channel. The chlorine contact tank is fitted with a 45 V-Notch weir at the outlet. The level reading is transmitted to the controller and converted to flow rate indicated on the in field display unit.
This tank is bi-annually inspected. If the sludge at the bottom of the first compartment of the septic tank has accumulated to a height of ca to mm the sludge has to be removed by pumping it into the adjacent sludge drying beds. A separate sludge pump can be used for this, or alternatively one of the trickling filter feed pumps can be used to manually remove this sludge from the tank. Caution: Inhaling chlorine fumes may cause serious lung damage. Avoid direct skin contact with liquid chlorine solution.
Use of correct PPE is recommended. If there is an anaerobic pond close by, it will accelerate the process drastically by filling some of the sludge into the septic tank - 3 m3 to 5 m3 will do a lot to accelerate the process! The above is also true for any other biological sewage treatment process, even pond systems. The treated effluent will not be to standard upon initial start-up due to deficiency of microorganisms, because the microbial cultures need time to establish, the clarifier outflow should also still look a bit murky, because it will not have the bioflocs yet - that will only form once a proper biomass is established and latter is slouched off by the water trickling through.
The following steps need to be followed to start the plant after a shutdown: Check all pipework is in good condition; Check that all valves isolating and non-return valves are functional; Ensure all manual isolating valves are fully open; Ensure the chlorine dosing tank contains the correct amount and concentration of chemical; Switch on the electricity and all electrical equipment; Check nozzles on top of trickling filter.
Water must spray out of each nozzle and the complete surface area must be covered not necessarily evenly. Press F1 to accept all alarm messages. Select all pumps to OFF. Desludge all tanks where aerobic sludge can accumulate clarifier and recycle sump ; Switch off all power at the control board; Keep water in all structures at all times.
Groundwater may lift empty structures! Remove and clean all mechanical equipment; For long shutdowns, take out all submersible pumps, clean with potable water and store in a suitable store room. However, the following routine maintenance is necessary:. Daily Remove all objects accumulated on the bar screen of the inlet box.
Use a rake to remove these and discard into waste bin; Check that the chlorine dosing tank still contains sufficient chemical replace when almost empty; Check free chlorine concentration of the final effluent at the outlet of the chlorine contact tank.
Sewage Treatment Plant Operation And Maintenance Manual
The whole Effluent and sewage generation is the primer activity the area is divided into following groups for ease of operation and maintenance. After reviewing collected data, Safety Officer analyses Sewage and effluent generation on a monthly basis. New water consumption levels are assessed by the Safety Officer and the results are compared with targets. The successful solutions are continued whereas for unsatisfactory solutions are reviewed for improvements. The samples of ETP and STP water is also been tested by the external agency once in a month for checking the efficient and proper working of the plants. Pretesh Biswas has wealth of qualifications and experience in providing results-oriented solutions for your system development, training or auditing needs.
Military Engineer Services
This guidebook published by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board takes the reader through various units, operations and processes in a typical Extended Aeration Biological treatment plant, the Workhorse of the industry. The treatment proceeds in a logical and linear progression from the first unit, the Bar Screen to the final unit for sludge handling and disposal. The three cardinal rules are applied to each unit in a simple enough manner that makes reading the book easy and the learning to be fun, with splendid 3D colour illustrations of the various units in the Treatment Plant. At the end of the book are self use and evaluation sections, where the reader is enabled to navigate through the design and engineering checks for a good treatment plant.
This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. Stanley, Norm February 1, It has been viewed times, with 8 in the last month. More information about this report can be viewed below.
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