Coulson And Richardson Chemical Engineering Volume 3 Pdf
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- Chemical Engineering, Volume 3
- Chemical Engineering, Volume 3
- Coulson and Richardson Chemical Engineering, Volume 3 PDF
Chemical Engineering, Volume 3
By Elsevier Science. Coulson, J. Richardson, J. Backhurst and J. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The right of J. Harker to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made.
For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at books. The publication of the Third Edition of Chemical Engineering Volume 3 marks the completion of the re-orientation of the basic material contained in the first three volumes of the series. Volume 3 has now lost both Non-Newtonian Technology, which appears in abridged form in Volume 1, and the Chapter on Sorption Processes, which is now more logically located with the other Separation Processes in Volume 2.
The Chapter on Computation has been removed. This situation has now completely changed and there is no longer a strong case for the inclusion of this topic in an engineering text book. With some reluctance the material on numerical solution of equations has also been dropped as it is more appropriate to a mathematics text. In the new edition, the material on Chemical Reactor Design has been re-arranged into four chapters.
The first covers General Principles as in the earlier editions and the second deals with Flow Characteristics and Modelling in Reactors. Chapter 3 now includes material on Catalytic Reactions from the former Chapter 2 together with non-catalytic gas-solids reactions, and Chapter 4 covers other multiphase reactor systems.
Lee has contributed the material in Chapters 1, 2 and 4 and that on non-catalytic reactions in Chapter 3, and Professor W. Thomas has covered catalytic reactions in that Chapter. Chapter 5, on Biochemical Engineering, has been completely rewritten in two sections by Dr R. Lovitt and Dr M. Jones with guidance from the previous author, Professor B.
The earlier part deals with the nature of reaction processes controlled by micro-organisms and enzymes and is prefaced by background material on the relevant microbiology and biochemistry. In the latter part, the process engineering principles of biochemical reactors are discussed, and emphasis is given to those features which differentiate them from the chemical reactors described previously.
The concluding two chapters by Dr A. Wardle deal, respectively, with Measurement, and Process Control. The former is a completely new chapter describing the various in-line techniques for measurement of the process variables which constitute the essential inputs to the control system of the plant. The last chapter gives an updated treatment of the principles and applications of process control and concludes with a discussion of computer control of process plant. Apart from general updating and correction, the main alterations in the second edition of Volume 3 are additions to Chapter 1 on Reactor Design and the inclusion of a Table of Error Functions in the Appendix.
In Chapter 1 two new sections have been added. In the first of these is a discussion of non-ideal flow conditions in reactors and their effect on residence time distribution and reactor performance.
In the second section an important class of chemical reactions—that in which a solid and a gas react non-catalytically—is treated. Together, these two additions to the chapter considerably increase the value of the book in this area.
All quantities are expressed in SI units, as in the second impression, and references to earlier volumes of the series take account of the modifications which have recently been made in the presentation of material in the third editions of these volumes. Chemical engineering, as we know it today, developed as a major engineering discipline in the United Kingdom in the interwar years and has grown rapidly since that time.
The unique contribution of the subject to the industrial scale development of processes in the chemical and allied industries was initially attributable to the improved understanding it gave to the transport processes—fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer—and to the development of design principles for the unit operations, nearly all of which are concerned with the physical separation of complex mixtures, both homogeneous and heterogeneous, into their components.
In this context the chemical engineer was concerned much more closely with the separation and purification of the products from a chemical reactor than with the design of the reactor itself.
The situation is now completely changed. With a fair degree of success achieved in the physical separation processes, interest has moved very much towards the design of the reactor, and here too the processes of fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer can be just as important. Furthermore, many difficult separation problems can be obviated by correct choice of conditions in the reactor.
Chemical manufacture has become more demanding with a high proportion of the economic rewards to be obtained in the production of sophisticated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics and polymers, to name a few, which only a few years earlier were unknown even in the laboratory.
Profit margins have narrowed too, giving a far greater economic incentive to obtain the highest possible yield from raw materials. Reactor design has therefore become a vital ingredient of the work of the chemical engineer.
Volumes 1 and 2, though no less relevant now, reflected the main areas of interest of the chemical engineer in the early s. In Volume 3 the coverage of chemical engineering is brought up to date with an emphasis on the design of systems in which chemical and even biochemical reactions occur.
It includes chapters on adsorption, on the general principles of the design of reactors, on the design and operation of reactors employing heterogeneous catalysts, and on the special features of systems exploiting biochemical and microbiological processes.
Many of the materials which are processed in chemical and bio-chemical reactors are complex in physical structure and the flow properties of non-Newtonian materials are therefore considered worthy of special treatment. With the widespread use of computers, many of the design problems which are too complex to solve analytically or graphically are now capable of numerical solution, and their application to chemical engineering problems forms the subject of a chapter.
Parallel with the growth in complexity of chemical plants has developed the need for much closer control of their operation, and a chapter on process control is therefore included.
Each chapter of Volume 3 is the work of a specialist in the particular field, and the authors are present or past members of the staff of the Chemical Engineering Department of the University College of Swansea.
Thomas is now at the Bath University of Technology and J. Smith is at the Technische Hogeschool. The authors and publishers acknowledge with thanks the assistance given by the following companies and individuals in providing illustrations and data for this volume and giving their permission for reproduction.
Everyone was most helpful and some firms went to considerable trouble to provide exactly what was required. We are extremely grateful to them all. In chemical engineering physical operations such as fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and separation processes play a very large part; these have been discussed in Volumes 1 and 2. In any manufacturing process where there is a chemical change taking place, however, the chemical reactor is at the heart of the plant.
In size and appearance it may often seem to be one of the least impressive items of equipment, but its demands and performance are usually the most important factors in the design of the whole plant.
When a new chemical process is being developed, at least some indication of the performance of the reactor is needed before any economic assessment of the project as a whole can be made. As the project develops and its economic viability becomes established, so further work is carried out on the various chemical engineering operations involved. Thus, when the stage of actually designing the reactor in detail has been reached, the project as a whole will already have acquired a fairly definite form.
Among the major decisions which will have been taken is the rate of production of the desired product. This will have been determined from a market forecast of the demand for the product in relation to its estimated selling price. The reactants to be used to make the product and their chemical purity will have been established. The basic chemistry of the process will almost certainly have been investigated, and information about the composition of the products from the reaction, including any byproducts, should be available.
On the other hand, a reactor may have to be designed as part of a modification to an existing process. Because the new reactor has then to tie in with existing units, its duties can be even more clearly specified than when the whole process is new. Naturally, in practice, detailed knowledge about the performance of the existing reactor would be incorporated in the design of the new one. As a general statement of the basic objectives in designing a reactor, we can say therefore that the aim is to produce a specified product at a given rate from known reactants.
In proceeding further however a number of important decisions must be made and there may be scope for considerable ingenuity in order to achieve the best result. At the outset the two most important questions to be settled are:. Will the reaction be carried out as a batch process, a continuous flow process, or possibly as a hybrid of the two?
Will the reactor operate isothermally, adiabatically or in some intermediate manner? Thus, the basic processing conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and compositions of the reactants on entry to the reactor have to be decided, if not already specified as part of the original process design. Subsequently, the aim is to reach logical conclusions concerning the following principal features of the reactor:.
The composition of the products must of course lie within any limits set in the original specification of the process. Before taking up the design of reactors in detail, let us first consider the very important question of whether any byproducts are formed in the reaction.
Obviously, consumption of reactants to give unwanted, and perhaps unsaleable, byproducts is wasteful and will directly affect the operating costs of the process. Apart from this, however, the nature of any byproducts formed and their amounts must be known so that plant for separating and purifying the products from the reaction may be correctly designed.
The appearance of unforeseen byproducts on start-up of a full-scale plant can be utterly disastrous. Economically, although the cost of the reactor may sometimes not appear to be great compared with that of the associated separation equipment such as distillation columns, etc.
As we shall see later, the design of a reactor itself can affect the amount of byproducts formed and therefore the size of the separation equipment required. The design of a reactor and its mode of operation can thus have profound repercussions on the remainder of the plant. In the following pages we shall see that reactor design involves all the basic principles of chemical engineering with the addition of chemical kinetics.
Mass transfer, heat transfer and fluid flow are all concerned and complications arise when, as so often is the case, interaction occurs between these transfer processes and the reaction itself.
In designing a reactor it is essential to weigh up all the various factors involved and, by an exercise of judgement, to place them in their proper order of importance.
Often the basic design of the reactor is determined by what is seen to be the most troublesome step. It may be the chemical kinetics; it may be mass transfer between phases; it may be heat transfer; or it may even be the need to ensure safe operation. For example, in oxidising naphthalene or o-xylene to phthalic anhydride with air, the reactor must be designed so that ignitions, which are not infrequent, may be rendered harmless. The theory of reactor design is being extended rapidly and more precise methods for detailed design and optimisation are being evolved.
However, if the final design is to be successful, the major decisions taken at the outset must be correct. Initially, a careful appraisal of the basic role and functioning of the reactor is required and at this stage the application of a little chemical engineering common sense may be invaluable.
Chemical reactors may be divided into two main categories, homogeneous and heterogeneous. In homogeneous reactors only one phase, usually a gas or a liquid, is present. If more than one reactant is involved, provision must of course be made for mixing them together to form a homogenous whole. Often, mixing the reactants is the way of starting off the reaction, although sometimes the reactants are mixed and then brought to the required temperature.
In heterogeneous reactors two, or possibly three, phases are present, common examples being gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-solid and liquid-liquid systems. In cases where one of the phases is a solid, it is quite often present as a catalyst; gas-solid catalytic reactors particularly form an important class of heterogeneous chemical reaction systems.
Chemical Engineering, Volume 3
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The publication of the third edition of 'Chemical Engineering Volume 3' marks the completion of the re-orientation of the basic material contained in the first three volumes of the series. Volume 3 is devoted to reaction engineering both chemical and biochemical , together with measurement and process control. This text is designed for students, graduate and postgraduate, of chemical engineering. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.
Coulson and Richardson Chemical Engineering, Volume 3 PDF
By Elsevier Science. Coulson, J. Richardson, J. Backhurst and J. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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