Introduction Of Computer And Information Technology Pdf
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An information system IS is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information.
Introduction to Information Technology
Information technology IT is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data ,  often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware , software , electronics , semiconductors , internet , telecommunications equipment , engineering , healthcare , e-commerce and computer services. Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians developed writing in about BC,  but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a article published in the Harvard Business Review ; authors Harold J.
Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology IT.
Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical BC — AD , mechanical — , electromechanical — and electronic —present. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick. Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3 , completed in , was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine.
Colossus , developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer.
Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. The development of transistors in the late s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I , contained valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts.
By comparison the first transistorized computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November , consumed only watts in its final version. Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape , a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum , invented in  and used in the Ferranti Mark 1 , the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.
It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in to exabytes in ,  doubling roughly every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the s  to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity.
A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema. The extensible markup language XML has become a popular format for data representation in recent years. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems , it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort".
The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent Structured Query Language SQL , based on relational algebra. The terms "data" and "information" are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Data warehouses began to be developed in the s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems DSS.
Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early s,  particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP ,  describing "data-in-transit rather than Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change a kind of Moore's law : machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between and ; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double every 3 years ; and per capita broadcast information has doubled every Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited".
In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the s.
This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be concrete use, but without the reinforcement of definition Retrieved 9 February The Economist. Categories : Harv and Sfn no-target errors Information technology.
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Save extra with 2 Offers. Introduction To Information Technology by V. This book is intended for such a course. Skills can be learnt easily by practice with a computer and by using instructions given in simple web lessons that have been cited in the References. The book defines Information Technology as the technology that is used to acquire, store, organize, process and disseminate processed data, namely, information. The unique aspect of the book is to examine processing all types of data: numbers, text, images, audio and video data. As IT is a rapidly changing field, we have taken the approach to emphasize reasonably stable, fundamental concepts on which the technology is built.
Information technology IT is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data ,  often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware , software , electronics , semiconductors , internet , telecommunications equipment , engineering , healthcare , e-commerce and computer services.
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Личный кабинет Лиланда Фонтейна ничем не походил на остальные помещения дирекции. В нем не было ни картин, ни мягкой мебели, ни фикусов в горшках, ни антикварных часов. Здесь все было подчинено одному требованию - эффективности. Стол, накрытый стеклом, и черный кожаный стул были расположены прямо перед громадным венецианским окном. Три шкафа-картотеки стояли в углу рядом с маленьким столиком с французской кофеваркой. Над Форт-Мидом высоко в небе сияла луна, и серебристый свет падал в окно, лишь подчеркивая спартанскую меблировку. Что же я делаю.
Бармен с любезной улыбкой протянул Беккеру стакан: - A su gusto, senor. Клюквенный сок и капелька водки. Беккер поблагодарил. Отпил глоток и чуть не поперхнулся. Ничего себе капелька. В голове у нее стучало.
Скорее всего это игры Стратмора: он мудро решил не впутывать в это дело агентство. - Фильтры Протокола передачи файлов выходят из строя! - крикнул кто-то из технического персонала. - Нам нужен этот предмет, - сказал Фонтейн. - Где сейчас находится Халохот. Смит бросил взгляд через плечо.
Ему было понятно нетерпение иностранца, но все-таки зачем рваться без очереди. Беккер наклонил голову и тщательно разжевывал облатку.
Беккер повернулся к нему и заговорил на беглом немецком: - Noch etwas. Что-нибудь. Что помогло бы мне найти девушку, которая взяла кольцо. Повисло молчание. Казалось, эта туша собирается что-то сказать, но не может подобрать слов.
Ее черный лоснящийся верх поднимался на двадцать три фута, а сама она уходила далеко вниз, под пол. Своей гладкой окружной формой она напоминала дельфина-косатку, застывшего от холода в схваченном морозом море. Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством. Подобно айсбергу машина скрывала девяносто процентов своей массы и мощи под поверхностью. Ее секрет был спрятан в керамических шахтах, уходивших на шесть этажей вниз; ее похожий на ракету корпус окружал лабиринт подвесных лесов и кабелей, из-под которых слышалось шипение фреоновой системы охлаждения.