reflection in learning and professional development theory and practice pdf

Reflection In Learning And Professional Development Theory And Practice Pdf

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Reflective Practice is a modern term, and an evolving framework, for an ancient method of self-improvement. Reflective Practice is a very adaptable process.

Reflective Practice Journal Pdf

For many years, reflection has been considered good practice in medical education. In public health PH , while no formal training or teaching of reflection takes place, it is expected as part of continuous professional development. This paper aims to identify reflective models useful for PH and to review published literature on the role of reflection in PH. The paper also aims to investigate the reported contribution, if any, of reflection by PH workers as part of their professional practice.

A review of the literature was carried out in order to identify reflective experience, either directly related to PH or in health education. Free text searches were conducted for English language papers on electronic bibliographic databases in September Thirteen papers met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. There is limited but growing evidence to suggest reflection improves practice in disciplines allied to PH. No specific models are currently recommended or widely used in PH.

Health education literature has reflective models which could be applied to PH practice. The practice of public health PH is a science as well as an art. The Faculty of Public Health provides direction and guidance to enable the development of professionals and establish competencies that specify behaviour, skills and attitudes.

The Faculty encourages professionals to reflect as part of essential practice. However, the mere experience of carrying out some developmental activity may not be sufficient to enable future improvements and thus many medical specialities encourage their practitioners to reflect on their experiences. Reflection can contribute to learning. In practice, the cognitive aspects are most easily measured through assessments or performance, while the emotional and social aspects may be less easily captured.

Frameworks of reflection could support the development of both these dimensions. Four stages of Kolb's learning cycle 6. The cycle of learning comprises four elements—a concrete experience, an observation and reflection, formation of abstract concepts and testing in new situations.

However, in its simplified form, the learning cycle will begin by carrying out a task, the person would reflect on that experience and apply the learning in a new situation.

In order to apply experience to the new situation, the ability to generalize through identifying principles and their connections to actions over a range of circumstances is required. Throughout the process, learners rate themselves which is an important element for adult learners 8 and could be considered relevant for continuous professional development.

In his work, Donald Schon 9 concludes that the possible objects for reflection can be as varied as the situations faced and the systems in which they occur. However, as a speciality on the whole, PH has focused heavily on quantitative measures for evaluation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a framework for learning to reflection for individuals as well as for teams and to identify approaches to guide continuous professional development.

This paper describes how this could be implemented and used in everyday work to enable professional development. The search terms used were evidence-based practice, research evidence, medical education, qualitative research, reflective practice, reflection and evidence. Other sources included handpicking of books on evidence-based practice, reflection and research. Full texts of potentially relevant articles were obtained. Papers were identified for inclusion in the review by examination of full text articles.

Data relating to characteristics of the population, intervention, outcome measures, study design and outcomes were collected. Papers written in English only were included. Articles pertaining to reflection in or on practice in PH or related disciplines were included. Documents published between and were included. Peer- and non-peer-reviewed publications were considered. Articles that included reflection as by-product rather than the main focus were excluded.

Non-English language publications were excluded. Electronic searches yielded over citations. Further citations were obtained by hand searching of reference lists. More than 20 full articles were retrieved and assessed against the set inclusion criteria. Of the five papers included in this review, none were from PH, two from nursing and two from other allied health professions or other education literature.

One further model was included from non-health background. The search did not find evidence that particular frameworks were in regular use in current PH practice. The search identified educational concepts from the literature which could be applied to PH. Several approaches to reflection were found. While none of these were linked directly to PH practice, their use in medicine was referenced. The literature discussed here were selected on relevance and focused on the synthesis on framework, service-based learning and mentorship.

Burton's approach 11 was to use the core questions focused on reflection on action but with the ability to be applied in and before action. Burton's cycle of three questions comprises the questions: What? So what? Now what? These are questions which the reflector can answer during the reflective process. Boud et al. Boud describes three main components to consider—experience, reflection and outcome. The experience can be a behaviour, ideas or feelings.

The reflection will include returning to the experience, attend to feelings that it brought about and a re-evaluation of the experience. The outcome will look at new perspectives, changes to behaviour and an application of learning into practice.

The Gibbs' reflective cycle encourages a clear description of the situation, analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience and an analysis to make sense of the experience. This would be followed by conclusions where other options are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what one would do if the situation arose again. The evaluation component describes what was good and not so good about the experience.

The analysis should identify what sense can be made of the situation and the conclusion details of what else could have been done. The process of reflection is ended with an action plan for what could be done if the situation arose again. Atkins and Murphy 5 through their model suggest that for reflection to have a real effect it needs to be followed by an action commitment.

The authors describe a cycle of awareness, description, analysis, evaluation and learning. The reflective process begins with the awareness of uncomfortable feelings and thoughts from the action or new experience followed by a description of the situation including thoughts and feelings.

This would need to include salient events and key features identified by the reflector. The reflector would need to analyse feelings and knowledge relevant to the situation—identifying knowledge, challenging assumptions, imagining and exploring alternatives.

The reflection process would also need to include evaluation and consolidating learning. These steps would be followed by identifying any learning which has occurred. After-action review is a de-brief process in practice originally developed by the US army which aims to identify how to improve, maintain strengths and focus on performance of specific objectives. The de-brief manual provides guidance for individuals and group reviews. What actually happened? Why were they different?

What did we I learn? There is no published evidence of the use of particular models of reflection in PH practice. The general medical education literature contains various approaches to reflection. The evidence base to suggest learner's self-reflection skills can be improved through formal training is still lacking. There are a variety of theories on reflection in the education literature.

The implication this brings to individual PH practitioners is to consider when and how they will reflect as part of their continuous learning cycle.

In addition, whether the act of reflection should be done alone or as part of a team or both will need to be established. As a discipline that has focused less on reflection in the past it is possible to draw on theories and models already existent and in use within medicine. There are a range of ways to reflect which include methods like journal writing, discussions and use of technology such as blogs. Ultimately, the aim of reflection would be to improve practice and learn from relevant experiences.

It is obvious that this comes from being an analytical reflector and moving beyond pure description. As some of the literature suggests, it is useful to recognise emotional influence and challenge one's ideas.

In broader learning terms, it is also useful to consider the relevance of prior experience. Reflection enhances personal development by leading to self-awareness. Often action takes place across multi-sectoral teams and involves multi-phased interventions. Programme delivery is often longer term, should be population focused and policy led. The learner involvement is a key fundamental principle of adult education. PH CPD and the reflection that forms part of it can be viewed in light of adult education as individuals need to take ownership and engage in setting their learning agenda.

There needs to be opportunity to reflect as individuals as well as in teams in an acute manner while carrying out the longer term projects. Reflection can be used as a tool to facilitate professionals to assess beliefs, values and approaches to practice.

Adult learners are more likely to believe and instil ideas that they help create. The environment can provide many structured activities that generate the ideas, concepts or techniques if an active decision to do so is taken. The practitioner could then experience surprise, puzzlement or confusion associated with the situation. Reflecting on the phenomena that is being experienced and prior understanding which have implicated, the resulting behaviour will lead the learner to new understanding.

In the health promotion literature, reflection on external and internal factors is recommended. These factors, however, could be equally applied to other domains of PH as they will include policy, professional and societal influences examples of external factors and attitudes, skills, experiences and team dynamics examples of internal factors.

Reflective Practice

Click on the links below to jump to the respective piece of content on this page. CPD is ongoing; it enables the individual, in collaboration with their organisation, to maintain, develop and gain recognition for existing and new professional skills, knowledge and competence. We do this to ensure we continue to provide high quality policing to keep the public safe and help to drive career aspirations. Use the professional development plan template. Learning takes many forms in the workplace and they all offer opportunities to help you develop your professional practice. Whatever form the learning takes, it is important to reflect and think about how you can apply it to your professional practice.

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Reflective Practice

Reflective Practice is a modern term, and an evolving framework, for an ancient method of self-improvement. Reflective Practice is a very adaptable process. It is a set of ideas that can be used alongside many other concepts for training, learning, personal development, and self-improvement. It's also very helpful in teaching and developing young people and children.

The process of reflection is a cycle which needs to be repeated. Reflection is a systematic reviewing process for all teachers which allows you to make links from one experience to the next, making sure your students make maximum progress. Reflection is a basic part of teaching and learning.

Handbook of Teacher Education pp Cite as. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.

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An action based on reflection is beneficial for the progression of my career as a nursing educator and for the quality of my teaching. Fedex package handler review. Reflection based on Gibbs reflective cycle Example 1 Gibbs, G. A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.

Here we'll cover some key elements for you to consider when writing reflectively. Of, relating to, produced by, or resulting from reflection. The candidate for Montessori certification understands reflective practice.

Reflection is a common approach to engaging in structured, self-directed learning and integrates theory with real world practice, due to the ease with which it can.


 - Это обнадеживает: яблоки и яблоки. - Чем отличаются изотопы? - спросил Фонтейн.  - Это должно быть что-то фундаментальное. Соши пожирала глазами текст. - Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик.

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 Мы можем это сделать! - сказала она, стараясь взять ситуацию под контроль.  - Из всех различий между ураном и плутонием наверняка есть такое, что выражается простым числом. Это наша главная цель. Простое число. Джабба посмотрел на таблицу, что стояла на мониторе, и всплеснул руками.

Несмотря на разногласия со Стратмором по многим вопросам, Фонтейн всегда очень высоко его ценил. Стратмор был блестящим специалистом, возможно, лучшим в агентстве. И в то же время после провала с Попрыгунчиком Стратмор испытывал колоссальный стресс.



PDF | At the heart of adult learning lies reflection, a much used but rarely Based on considerations of theoretical frameworks used and adapted by is at the heart of their effective teaching practice and professional growth.


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For many years, reflection has been considered good practice in medical education.


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