Industrial Metrology Surfaces And Roundness Pdf
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- On-machine and in-process surface metrology for precision manufacturing
- Industrial Metrology - E-bog
- Industrial Metrology - E-bog
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On-machine and in-process surface metrology for precision manufacturing
Savio 1 g, J. The state-of-the-art on-machine and in-process measurement systems and Keywords: sensor technologies are presented. Error separation algorithms for removing machine tool errors, which is Surface specially required in on-machine and in-process surface metrology, are overviewed, followed by a Metrology discussion on calibration and traceability.
Future challenges and developing trends are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction tative characterization of the surface [36,]. Surface metrology includes the measure- as structured surfaces  and freeform surfaces [56,]. Both the workpiece. A large variety of commercially-available surface manufacturing process, e. For instance, the process chain of manufacturing a data of the surface.
Software associated with the instruments or 4. Meanwhile, E-mail address: gaowei cc. Gao et al. Each fundamental process is roughness tolerances. It should be noted In addition to quality control of workpieces, on-machine and in- that a machining activity can be iterative where the same process surface metrology are also effective for control of fundamental process is repeated for a couple of cycles on the manufacture through optimizing the manufacturing process and same machine, e.
It is becoming more feasible to implement surface production line based on the process chain of manufacturing in metrology on the machine tool and in the manufacturing process a factory where the environmental conditions, such as tempera- with improvements in the stability of the machine tool . In ture, vibration and humidity, may not be strictly controlled. On the recent years, on-machine and in-process surface metrology is other hand, surface measuring instruments are located in different playing an increasingly important role in the process chain of places in the factory for measurement of the workpiece.
The measuring instruments can then be displays, large roll moulds for roll-to-roll replication and turbine categorized into two groups from the point of view of environ- blades of airplanes [27,,]. Similar trends are observed in the mental condition: those that are placed in the metrology room and non-traditional manufacturing processes, such as additive those that are not.
The measurement of the workpiece surface manufacturing  and nano-scale manufacturing [54,55]. Error separation algorithms for compensation of kinematic or dynamic errors of the machine tools are overviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues of calibration and traceability. It should be noted that the measurement of dimensions and surface integrity, although both important aspects dominating the function of workpiece surfaces, will not be covered in this paper.
Since in- process is the ideal case of on-machine condition, it is treated as an independent term in the title of the paper to emphasize the importance of in-process surface metrology. General issues 2. Schematic of surface metrology in a factory with a production line. However, there from the manufacturing environment. This can often lead to confusion and misunderstanding when specifying a manufactur- Measuring instruments outside the metrology room can also be ing metrology activity.
Some of them are placed outside the papers. One of the motivations of this paper is thus to classify these production line. It is necessary to move the workpiece out of the terms as shown in Fig. When looking at the surface metrology carried out in the production line, the workpiece can either be measured when it is mounted on the machine or when it is moved out of the machine.
Conditions of surface metrology for precision manufacturing. Moreover, it is often workpiece is manufactured. The slide, spindle and numerical control NC carried out. On the other hand, for on-machine surface metrology, controller of the machine tool then become important elements of since the measurement is carried out on the manufacturing the measurement system for on-machine surface metrology.
An on-machine surface metrology, can then be referred to as: artefact or a workpiece with a known shape and a known position in the machine tool coordinate system is required for this purpose.
Schematic example of an on-machine surface metrology system. Since no additional time is taken for the inspection, the is taking place. In this case, the sensor head is required to be robust enough to the potentially Surface metrology carried out in the on-machine condition will severe machining environment, which is typically associated with be included in this paper.
The physical is the ideal case of on-machine surface metrology. Tasks and requirements considered. Another task of on-machine surface metrology is for compen- Fig. The surface measurement data are fed system. The surface measuring instrument. Since on-machine inspection is made soon metrology for this task can be carried out post-process or more after the manufacturing process, and without moving the ideally in-process.
In either case, it is required to transfer the workpiece from the machine, the time interval from the end of measurement data into the machine tool coordinate system and the manufacturing process to the start of the inspection can be then make a comparison with the designed shape. Taking into consideration the limited space of the machine compensation machining. On the left on the surface by the process. For most processes, the tool mark other hand, the in-process surface metrology for this task is also is sensitive to the process parameters and the machine tool subject to the same requirements for the on-machine inspection conditions, which can thus be diagnosed from measurement of the discussed above.
For this task, it is required to establish the relationship between the surface irregularities, the process parameters and machine tool conditions. The tasks and corresponding requirements for on-machine surface metrology are summarized in Table 1. Most of the technologies Fig.
On-machine surface metrology for compensation machining. As discussed above, the surface of a covered in Refs. For this task, the coordinate system for the on-machine surface metrology is required to be consistent with that of the machine tool. The measurement is required to have enough resolution and accuracy in both vertical and lateral directions so that precision Fig. Technology chain of surface metrology. On-machine measurement systems The on-machine measurement systems to be presented in this section are listed in Fig.
On-machine surface metrology for initial alignment of workpiece. Table 1 Tasks and requirements for on-machine surface metrology. Surface texture measurement can be realized by optics for its high form measurement accuracy.
When applying scanning a mechanical or optical stylus with a small footprint. On the other hand, although substantial improve- ments in the performance of 3D surface vision systems have been achieved in recent years, with advances in camera and image processing technologies, the form measurement accuracy is still much lower than that of surface interferometry systems.
How to realize accurate calibration on a machine tool is another important issue for on-machine applications of a 3D vision system. On-machine surface form interferometry. An intensity image of the interferogram is captured by an image sensor for analysing the height information of the workpiece surface in terms of light wavelengths . Due to the limitation in the frame rate of the image sensor, it takes a certain period of shutter time, typically ranging from 0. Measurement systems for on-machine surface metrology.
Any changes in the interferogram, i. In an ex-situ measurement, a nearly common- probe alignment errors, thermal drift, vibration, etc. The interfer- ometer was mounted at a position on the machine bed to measure 3.
For this reason, the on-machine interferogram became sensitive to environmental disturbances. During the measurement, the Fig. An on-machine Twyman-Green dynamic interferometer .
In a common-path inter- ferometer, the reference beam and the measurement beam travel along the same path. It has been demonstrated that stable interferograms were obtained when a spherical workpiece was being rotated by the spindle at a rotational speed of rpm, Fig.
In a phase-shifting interferometer grinding machine . However, under on-machine conditions, mirror mounted on the table of the machine beside the workpiece. It should be noted that the phase shift is sensitive to both high-frequency and low- frequency disturbances, since it takes a relatively long time, typically tens of seconds, to capture the set of the phase-shifted data frames.
For the above reason, a motivation for anti-vibration and air turbulence in on-machine surface form interferometry is for stabilization of the phase shifts between the data frames for the phase-shifting analysis.
This can be done by using the single-shot phase measurement method, where the set of phase-shifted data frames are captured simultaneously. Such an interferometer is often called a dynamic interferometer .
A Twyman-Green dynamic interferometer has been commercialized for on-machine surface metrology .
Industrial Metrology - E-bog
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The subject of this book is surface metrology, in particular two major aspects: surface texture and roundness. It has taken a long time for manufacturing engineers and designers to realise the usefulness of these features in quality of conformance and quality of design. Unfortunately this awareness has come at a time when engineers versed in the use and specification of surfaces are at a premium. Traditionally surface metrology usage has been dictated by engineers who have served long and demanding apprenticeships, usually in parallel with studies leading to technician-level qualifications.
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Industrial Metrology - E-bog
Roundness is the measure of how closely the shape of an object approaches that of a mathematically perfect circle. Roundness applies in two dimensions , such as the cross sectional circles along a cylindrical object such as a shaft or a cylindrical roller for a bearing. In geometric dimensioning and tolerancing , control of a cylinder can also include its fidelity to the longitudinal axis, yielding cylindricity. The analogue of roundness in three dimensions that is, for spheres is sphericity.
Он открыл рот, чтобы что-то сказать, но сделать этого не успел. Когда Хейл перестал на нее давить, Сьюзан почувствовала, что ее онемевшие ноги ожили. Еще толком не отдавая себе отчета в своих действиях и повинуясь инстинкту, она резким движением согнула ноги и со всей силы ударила Хейла коленом в промежность, ощутив, как ее коленные чашечки впились в его мягкие незащищенные ткани.