Definition History And Scope Of Pharmacognosy Pdf Creator
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Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal uses of various naturally occurring drugs its history, sources, distributions, method of cultivation, active constituents, medicinal uses, identification test, preservation methods, substituents and adulterants. Crude drugs is referred to the natural product that has not been in advanced in value or improved in condition by any process or treatment beyond that which is essential for its proper packaging and prevention from deterioration. Official title, synonym ,or vernacular terms Biological source and family Geographical source and habitat History and introduction of crude drug Cultivation, collection and processing of drug.
- Text Book Of Pharmacognosy Kokate
- Historical Development of Pharmacognosy
- History of pharmacy
Drug discovery using natural products is a challenging task for designing new leads. It describe the bioactive compounds derived from natural resources, its phytochemical analysis, characterization and pharmacological investigation.
It focuses on the success of these resources in the process of finding and discovering new and effective drug compounds that can be useful for human resources. From many years, natural products have been acting as a source of therapeutic agents and have shown beneficial uses.
Only natural product drug discovery plays an important role to develop the scientific evidence of these natural resources. The development of new technologies has revolutionized the screening of natural products in discovering new drugs. Utilizing these technologies gives us an opportunity to perform research in screening new molecules using a software and database to establish natural products as a major source for drug discovery.
It finally leads to lead structure discovery. Powerful new technologies are revolutionizing natural herbal drug discovery. Pharmacognosy - Medicinal Plants. Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Natural products and their derivatives have been recognized for many years as a source of therapeutic agents and structural diversity.
Natural products have a wide range of diversity of multidimensional chemical structures; in the meantime, the utility of natural products as biological function modifiers has also won considerable attention [ 1 ].
Drug discovery is leading to be a challenging scientific task to find robust and viable lead candidates, which is nothing but the process flow from a screening of natural product to a new isolate that requires expertise and experience. However, in addition to their chemical structure diversity and their biodiversity, the development of new technologies has revolutionized the screening of natural products in discovering new drugs [ 2 ].
Applying these technologies offers a unique opportunity to reestablish natural products as a major source for drug discovery. The outstanding phenomenon of nature always stands as golden mark for achieving the herbal drug discovery [ 3 ]. From earlier decades medicinal plants existed on earth. Thus, medicinal herbs are of global and paramount importance. The world is decorated with medicinal herbs, which is a rich wealth of endurance.
Every plant is identified by its own different therapeutic properties due to active bioactive molecule. In the modern system of medicine, natural drug substances are reported to be vital and have appreciable roles.
Their therapeutic role was justified by the presence of their bioactive molecules. Due to disease-inhibiting capabilities, they are extremely useful as natural drugs, provide basic bioactive compounds that are less toxic and more effective, and bring biological and chemical means of modification and extraction of natural products into potent drug.
The raw materials for Ayurvedic medicines were mostly obtained from plant sources in the form of crude drugs such as dried herbal powders or their extracts or mixture of products.
Around the globe, herbal medicine is based on traditional medicine. As per the oral survey made in many regions of the world, it has been said that traditional medicines have their own importance and basic philosophy.
So exploration of the chemical constituents of the plants and their pharmacological screening may provide us the basis for developing a lead molecule through herbal drug discovery. The very important life-saving drugs have been provided by herbs in modern medicine. Thus, there is a need of investigating the various bioactive fractions and the phytoanalysis and phytopharmacological evaluation of herbal drugs for achieving the dreams of herbal drug discovery. Many pharmaceutical compounds contain secondary metabolites of plants that are of vital importance in drug designing.
Natural products have played, and will continue to play, a key role in drug discovery and are therefore traditionally claimed as the cornerstones of drug discovery and development. Many drugs that are available in market today were discovered from natural sources [ 8 ]. Its origin is from the plant genera Salix spp. A good example is serendipitous discovery of the antibiotic penicillin [ 22 ] in the laboratory from the fungus Penicillium notatum.
Many other examples show the value and importance of natural products from plants and microorganisms in modern days. Paclitaxel Taxol [ 22 ] , which was first isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia Taxaceae , is the most recent example of an important natural product that has made an impact in medicine. Activity against a variety of retroviruses, including HIV, two compounds isolated from Hypericum perforatum Guttiferae are hypericin and pseudohypericin.
They are of paramount importance due to inhibition of release of reverse transcriptase by stabilizing the structure of the HIV capsid and thus preventing the uncoating process [ 9 , 10 ].
In four different ways, medicinal plants having good therapeutic properties are valuable for modern system of herbal and natural drug discovery. They are used as direct sources of therapeutic and bioactive agents. Bioactive fractions serve as raw material base for the elaboration and development of herbal-based more complex semisynthetic chemical compounds.
The isolated structures derived from herbal plant species can be used as lead for new drug discovery in developing herbal compounds. Lastly, plants can be used as bioactive markers for the spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis along with the discovery of new compounds.
Various strategies for the discovery of drugs from natural resources can be seen in Figure 1. Phytochemistry or phytoanalysis of natural product in chemistry research is the backbone and pillar of herbal pharmaceutical as well as food industry.
To achieve success in natural drug discovery and use of herbals in modern medicine, the steps to be followed are listed below [ 11 ]: Extraction, isolation with chromatographic separation, purification, and characterization of new phytoconstituents having good bioactivity. Conversation of lead phytoconstituents into medicinally important drugs by herbal drug discovery and herbal drugs used by common people showing socioeconomic benefit.
The following facets represent outlook of the stages involved in the development of bioactive molecule as pure drug from a plant source [ 12 ]. Collection and identification of the plant, authentication, and deposition of sample in herbarium like the botanical survey of India. Literature survey and analysis on the plant species along with the activity present in the selected plants for studies. Extraction of nonpolar to polar solvent and preparation of extracts for phytochemical analysis and their biological testing [ 13 ].
Structure elucidation using spectroscopic techniques of bioactive isolates using chemical methods. Performing molecular modeling studies and preparing derivatives of the active compound of interest. When total synthesis is not practical, carrying out large-scale reisolation of interesting active compounds for toxicological and pharmacological studies. First of all, in order to study medicinal plants, selection of plant and which type of pharmacological activity is to be studied should be clear to the researcher.
Five principles of selection of plants are very important to know which are the random, the taxonomic, the phytochemical, the ethno-medical and the information-managed approach Figure 2 [ 14 ]. In the random selection, collection of all available plants in the area, which is to be studied, is collected based only on visualization and observation without having knowledge and experience about the selected plants.
In the taxonomic approach, prior knowledge about the plants of interest with their specific genus or family and their different locations should be known.
The phytochemical chemotaxonomic approach is based on the knowledge of bioactive chemical type for treating particular disease of interest should be known and are collected. Taxonomic and the phytochemical approaches are interrelated.
In the ethnomedical approach, selection is totally based on the information of the medicinal use of that particular plant in various areas. Lastly, information managed approach is basically collection of plants based on survey and use of plants from their local area that gives prior idea about their usage and activity and then their evaluation scientifically. In the current era, new and newer diseases are causing threat to common people around the world.
Thus, disease percentage differs in every part of the world, but diseases are not new; due to global warming, they are detected newly. Multidisciplinary research on plants has led to many new drugs, as well as prototype active molecules and biological tools; for examples, see [ 14 ].
Himalaya herbals are developed herbal product from Boswellia, which are a pure herb extract. The bioactive molecule constituent in the gum resin of Shallaki or Boswellia serrata was boswellic acid.
Pyrazoline as a lead molecule is present in boswellic acid. Boswellia is a natural and safe herb for joint health, as it gently cares for it. Boswellia is a good promoter of healthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels and provides broad health and immune-modulating benefits. Boswellia has been used extensively in Ayurveda for arthritis and to provide an overall sense of well-being.
From long years ago, herbal medicine has paid hats off to ginger due to its ability to boost the immune system. It is believed that ginger is used in day-to-day life because it plays an important role in warming the body. It can help to clean our body from accumulated toxins by its break down in your body. Medicinal plant ginger also shows many health benefits.
It is specially used as natural remedy for nausea and pain alleviation and for its anti-inflammatory properties and inhibiting diabetes. Licorice is becoming evident and lighten up in various researches for treatment and prevention of diseases like hepatitis C, HIV, and influenza. From a study, it confirms the antiviral activity of licorice root due to its triterpenoid content. Licorice root benefits also include pain relief. The olive leaf has antiviral properties, giving it the ability to treat the common cold and dangerous viruses.
Oregano oil benefits are lightening up to be more superior to some antibiotics, with no harmful side effects on health, and can be used in day-to-day life. Carvacrol and thymol are the bioactive molecules isolated and studied and reported to have powerful properties and uses. They act upon viral infections, as well as allergies, tumors, parasites and disease-causing inflammation. In the current era, in many developed countries, priorities has been given to scientific research on medicinal plants is growing need of an hour in various research institutes, universities and pharmaceutical laboratories as well as in the clinics thereof.
This research is put forward in mainly two directions: first, bioactive molecule of plants that have long been known and used for their healing properties based on the prior knowledge of the survey and literature.
The second phase of basic research has led to the discovery of new medicinal plants with new bioactive molecules, new bioactivity, and new drugs from the more remote regions of the world [ 15 ].
Drugs of Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha need scientific investigation of each and every traditional medicine, which should be put forward for testing and validation. Many government and private companies like CSIR, New Delhi, are already involved in this filed and have validated about thousands of formulations for different activities.
This is a welcome trend and it plays a vital role to correlate the traditional practice with modern knowledge for the betterment of health. WHO has emphasized the need to ensure the quality control of herbs and herbal formulations by using modern techniques. Almost many countries have their own herbal pharmacopeias and make time to time amendments for new monographs and procedures to maintain their quality of herbal products that are benefited by common man. Example Ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India includes many basic quality parameters, isolation techniques, separation, and spectroscopic identification for more than hundred common herbal drugs.
It plays an eminent role in herbal natural drug discovery, and without analytical methodologies, it is hardly impossible. Spectroscopic characterization is the backbone and pillar of herbal drug discovery.
The knowledge of this plays an important role in developing the new lead, which can be used for designing new molecules with short modification. The important steps are the extraction, isolation, and characterization of active ingredients from herbal plants [ 16 ]. Different techniques of extraction are well known as extraction is the most important step toward the analysis of bioactive constituents.
Microwave-assisted extraction and conventional extraction should be studied specifically, which give the ideas about the yield obtained.
Text Book Of Pharmacognosy Kokate
Drug discovery using natural products is a challenging task for designing new leads. It describe the bioactive compounds derived from natural resources, its phytochemical analysis, characterization and pharmacological investigation. It focuses on the success of these resources in the process of finding and discovering new and effective drug compounds that can be useful for human resources. From many years, natural products have been acting as a source of therapeutic agents and have shown beneficial uses. Only natural product drug discovery plays an important role to develop the scientific evidence of these natural resources. The development of new technologies has revolutionized the screening of natural products in discovering new drugs.
Pharmacognosy had its origin in the health-related activities of the most primitive human race of the remote past. They acquired knowledge of medicinal properties of plants in the following way:. The Medicine Men monopolized the knowledge of drugs and hide that knowledge in some mysterious incantations. They transferred this secret knowledge only to their trusted predecessors of the successive generations, who gradually increased the volume of knowledge about drugs and their uses. As civilization progressed, transfer and recording of the knowledge were done in writing.
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people. Ethnobotany simply means Since the time of Schultes, the field of ethnobotany has grown from simply acquiring ethnobotanical knowledge to that of applying it to a modern society, primarily in the form of pharmaceuticals. The idea of ethnobotany was first proposed by the early 20th century botanist John William Harshberger. European botanical knowledge drastically expanded once the New World was discovered due to ethnobotany. This expansion in knowledge can primarily be attributed to the substantial influx of new plants from the Americas, including crops such as potatoes, peanuts, avocados, and tomatoes. During the medieval period, ethnobotanical studies were commonly found connected with monasticism.
Historical Development of Pharmacognosy
Ayurveda , also called Ayurvedic medicine , traditional system of Indian medicine. Ayurvedic medicine is an example of a well-organized system of traditional health care, both preventive and curative, that is widely practiced in parts of Asia. Ayurveda has a long tradition behind it, having originated in India perhaps as much as 3, years ago. Today it remains a favoured form of health care in large parts of the Eastern world, especially in India, where a large percentage of the population uses this system exclusively or combined with modern medicine. The Indian Medical Council was set up in by the Indian government to establish maintenance of standards for undergraduate and postgraduate education.
History of pharmacy
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53, species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. It is estimated that there are about , species of existing plants including seed plants, bryophytes, and ferns , among which , species have been identified as of [ 1 ]. Herbal medicine HM , also called botanical medicine, phytomedicine, or phytotherapy, refers to herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations, and finished herbal products that contain parts of plants or other materials as active ingredients [ 2 ].
The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century. Before then, pharmacy evolved from antiquity as part of medicine. The history of pharmacy coincides well with the history of medicine, but it's important that there is a distinction between the two topics. Pharmaceuticals is one of the most-researched fields in the academic industry, but the history surrounding that particular topic is sparse compared to the impact its made world-wide.
Phytotherapy: an introduction to its history, use and application. Ferreira, T. I ; Moreira, C. I ; Victoriano, G. There has been a great advance in the pharmacognosy field, which has increased the use of medicinal plants by health professionals and practitioners of folk medicine. This systematic review explored the history and the present day application of phytotherapeutic medicines. We concluded that there are many therapeutic potentialities in the use of phytotherapeutic medicines and medicinal plants.
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The term Pharmacognosy was first introduced by the Austrian physician Schmidt in and then in by Seydler in a work titled Analecta Pharmacognostica. Like any other scientific area, since the introduction of Pharmacognosy some years ago, it has evolved over the years, and now Pharmacognosy can be defined as the science of biogenic or naturally derived drugs, pharmaceuticals, and poisons, and it incorporates various modern analytical techniques to authenticate and quality control of crude drugs as well as purified active extracts, fractions, and components, and even medicinal foods.
Intellectual property rights IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is a recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity.
The history of herbalism is closely tied with the history of medicine from prehistoric times up until the development of the germ theory of disease in the 19th century.