types of intravenous fluids and indications pdf

Types Of Intravenous Fluids And Indications Pdf

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Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions

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Published on Jan 23, All what you need to know intravenous fluids, types, indications, contraindications, how to calculate fluid rate and drug dosages. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.

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Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Iv fluid therapy types, indications, doses calculation 1. IntroductionCan You Imagine life without water?

Of course not, because water is essential to sustain life. Total Body Fluid can be divided into Intracellular andExtracellular 3. In humans average 70 KG , the intracellular compartment contains on average about 28 liters of fluid. In the average male 70 kg human body, the interstitial spacehas approximately How much of you is water? What are Solutes? Term refers to the solute concentrationin the body fluid by weight. The numberof milliosmols mOsm in a kilogram kg of solution.

Types of FluidThe fluids used in clinical practice are usefully classifiedinto colloids, crystalloids and blood products1. Colloid Solutions that contain large molecules that dont passthe cell membranes.

When infused, they remain in the intravascularcompartment and expand the intravascular volume andthey draw fluid from extravascular spaces via theirhigher oncotic pressure Types of Fluid2. CrystalloidSolutions that contain small molecules that flow easily acrossthe cell membranes, allowing for transfer from thebloodstream into the cells and body tissues. Isotonic FluidsWhen to consider a solution isotonic? When the concentration of the particles solutes issimilar to that of plasma, So it doesnt move into cellsand remains within the extracellular compartmentthus increasing intravascular volume.

Isotonic FluidsA- 0. B- Ringers lactate or Hartmann solutionWhen to be used? B- Ringers lactate or Hartmann solutionNotice. Both 0. LRis often administered to patients who have metabolic acidosis not patientswith lactic acidosis-Dont give LR to patients with liver disease as they cant metabolize lactate- used cautiously in patients with sever renal impairment because it containssome potassium- LR shouldnt be given to a patient whose pH is greater than 7.

C -Ringers solutionLike LR, contains sodium, potassium, calcium, andchloride in similar. But it doesnt contain lactate.

Ringers solution is used in a similar fashion as LR, butdoesnt have the contraindications related to lactate. But still can be added to provide some calories while the patient isNPO. Thank you for yourattention Diabetic ketoacidosis3.

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Instruct patients to inform you if they feeldizzy or just "dont feel right. Colloid solutionsHow does it work? Stop the transfusion. Keep the I. Notify the physician and blood bank. Intervene for signs and symptoms as appropriate. Monitor the patients vital signs. Colloid solutions2- Hydroxyethalstarcheso Another form of hypertonic synthetic colloids used forvolume expansionoContain sodium and chloride and used for hemodynamicvolume replacement following major surgery and to treatmajor burnso Less expensive than albumin and their effects can last 24 to36 hours Colloid solutionsPrecautions when using Colloid solutions:1 The patient is at risk for developing fluid volume overload2 As for blood products, use an gauge or larger needle toinfuse colloids.

Colloid solutionsPrecautions when using Colloid solutions:4 Closely monitor intake and output. Take a careful allergy history from patientsreceiving colloids or any other drug or fluid , asking specifically iftheyve ever had a reaction to an I. Components of fluid therapy1. Maintenance therapy: replaces normal ongoing losses2.

Fluid Resuscitation: corrects any existing water and electrolyte deficits. Components of fluid therapyA. Maintenance therapy Maintenance therapy is usually undertaken when the individual is not expected to eat or drink normally for a longer time eg, perioperatively or patient on a ventilator Maintenance therapyHow to calculate maintenance fluid flow rates?

Fluid ResuscitationB Fluid Resuscitation :Correction of existing abnormalities in volume status or serumelectrolytes as in hypovolemic shock What is the Parameters used to assess volume deficit? Fluid ResuscitationHow to know that the patient has Hypovolemic Shock? The patient has the following sings and symptoms Anxiety or agitation 2- Cool, Pale skin3- Confusion 4- Decreased or no urine output5- Rapid breathing 6- Disturbed consciousness7- Low blood pressure 8- Low body temperature9- Rapid pulse, often weak andthready Fluid ResuscitationRate of Repletion of Fluid deficit Severe volume depletion or hypovolemic shock: Rapid infusion of L of isotonic saline 0.

How to calculate IV flow rates! Intravenous fluid must be given at a specificrate, neither too fast nor too slow. To control or adjust the flow rateonly drops per minute are used.

What is a drop factor? Drop factor is the number of drops in one milliliterused in IV fluid administration also called dripfactor. How to calculate IV flow rates? How to calculate drug dosage? Before doing the calculation,convert units of measurement to one system. Example:The ordered dose is Ceftriaxone mg IV. How to calculate? IV lines common ProblemsA. Infiltrationwhen the catheter unintentionally enters the tissue surrounding the blood vessel and the IV fluid go into the tissues.

PhlebitisInflammation of a blood vesselC. HypothermiaWhen large amounts of cold fluids are infused rapidlyD. Local infection Abscess A microscopic organism may use the tiny hole in the skin created by the IV catheter to find its way into the body, and cause an infection Determine if patient needs maintenance or resuscitationIII.

Choose fluid type based on co-existing electrolyte disturbancesIV. Choose rate of fluid administration based on weight and minimal daily requirementsVI. Always reassess whether the patient continues to require IV fluid

Intravenous fluid therapy

Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Intravenous fluid therapy involves the intravenous administration of crystalloid solutions and, less commonly, colloidal solutions. The type, amount, and infusion rates of fluids are determined based on the indication for fluid therapy and specific patient needs. Crystalloid solutions are used to resuscitate patients who are hypovolemic or dehydrated , correct free water deficits, replace ongoing fluid losses, and meet the fluid requirements of patients who cannot take fluids enterally. The use of colloidal solutions is controversial and should be reserved for special situations e.

Metrics details. In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition. In this paradigm-shifting review, we discuss different fluid management strategies including early adequate goal-directed fluid management, late conservative fluid management and late goal-directed fluid removal.

Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy

This can make the use of one more suitable than the other depending on the situation. Being isotonic means the fluids have the same osmotic pressure as blood. Osmotic pressure is a measurement of the balance of solutes such as sodium, calcium, and chloride to solvents for example, water.

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Use of infusion fluids

Get to know the different types of intravenous solutions or IV fluids in this guide and cheat sheet. Differentiate isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic IV solutions and the nursing interventions and management for each. Intravenous fluids , also known as intravenous solutions , are supplemental fluids used in intravenous therapy to restore or maintain normal fluid volume and electrolyte balance when the oral route is not possible. IV fluid therapy is an efficient and effective way of supplying fluids directly into the intravascular fluid compartment, in replacing electrolyte losses, and in administering medications and blood products.

Get to know the different types of intravenous solutions or IV fluids in this guide and cheat sheet. Differentiate isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic IV solutions and the nursing interventions and management for each. Intravenous fluids , also known as intravenous solutions , are supplemental fluids used in intravenous therapy to restore or maintain normal fluid volume and electrolyte balance when the oral route is not possible. IV fluid therapy is an efficient and effective way of supplying fluids directly into the intravascular fluid compartment, in replacing electrolyte losses, and in administering medications and blood products. Crystalloid IV solutions contain small molecules that flow easily across semipermeable membranes.

W e drink water, or a water-containing beverage, five to ten times a day. We do not have to keep track of our fluid intake. The thirst-creating mechanism is exquisitely sensitive to an increase in plasma osmolality and as long as there is free access to water, intake will never be less than the need. So, we rely on thirst to guide water intake. But what about a person who is receiving only intravenous fluids or gavage feeding?

IV Fluids and Solutions Guide & Cheat Sheet

Related files

This article describes the three main types of fluids used for fluid replacement therapy and fluid resuscitation, their composition, mode of action, indications and side-effects. Critically ill patients admitted to intensive care settings may need to be administered intravenous fluids — for example, to restore their blood pressure or replace lost blood. A crucial question arising in the management of these patients is which type of fluid to use. To decide which fluid is most appropriate and safest, nurses working in critical care need to understand how the different types of fluids act on the human body. This article describes the three main types of fluids crystalloids, colloids and blood products , their composition, mode of action, indications and side-effects. Nursing Times [online]; 12,

Intravenous fluid therapy

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Intravenous (IV) Fluid Prescribing in Adults

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3 comments

Georges V.

However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty.

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Sally B.

When administering IV fluids, the type and amount of fluid may influence I.V. Fluid. Osmolarity. Composition. Uses/Clinical Considerations.

REPLY

Guillermina F.

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