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To the origin of the cult of Dionysus

His attempts to better the lives of his creation brought him into conflict with Zeus. Firstly he tricked the gods out of the best portion of the sacrificial feast, acquiring the meat for the feasting of man. Then, when Zeus withheld fire, he stole it from heaven and delivered it to mortal kind hidden inside a fennel-stalk. As punishment for these rebellious acts, Zeus ordered the creation of Pandora the first woman as a means to deliver misfortune into the house of man, or as a way to cheat mankind of the company of the good spirits.

Prometheus meanwhile, was arrested and bound to a stake on Mount Kaukasos Caucasus where an eagle was set to feed upon his ever-regenerating liver or, some say, heart. Generations later the great hero Herakles Heracles came along and released the old Titan from his torture.

Prometheus was loosely identified in cult and myth with the fire-god Hephaistos Hephaestus and the giant Tityos Tityus. His name signifies "forethought," as that of his brother Epimetheus denotes "afterthought. The following is an outline of the legends related of him by the ancients. Once in the reign of Zeus, when gods and men were disputing with one another at Mecone afterwards Sicyon, Schol.

When Zeus pointed out to him how badly he had made the division, Prometheus desired him to choose, but Zeus, in his anger, and seeing through the stratagem of Prometheus, chose the heap of bones covered with the fat. Zeus now, in order to punish men, caused Hephaestus to mould a virgin, Pandora, of earth, whom Athena adorned with all the charms calculated to entice mortals; Prometheus himself was put in chains, and fastened to a pillar, where an eagle sent by Zeus consumed in the daytime his liver, which, in every succeeding night, was restored again.

Prometheus was thus exposed to perpetual torture, but Heracles killed the eagle and delivered the sufferer, with the consent of Zeus, who thus had an opportunity of allowing his son to gain immortal fame Hes. Prometheus had cautioned his brother Epimetheus against accepting any present from Zeus, but Epimetheus, disregarding the advice, accepted Pandora, who was sent to him by Zeus, through the mediation of Hermes. Pandora then lifted the lid of the vessel in which the foresight of Prometheus had concealed all the evils which might torment mortals in life.

Diseases and sufferings of every kind now issued forth, but deceitful hope alone remained behind Hes. This is an outline of the legend about Prometheus, as contained in the poems of Hesiod.

Aeschylus, in his trilogy Prometheus, added various new features to it, for, according to him, Prometheus himself is an immortal god, the friend of the human race, the giver of fire, the inventor of the useful arts, an omniscient seer, an heroic sufferer, who is overcome by the superior power of Zeus, but will not bend his inflexible mind.

Although he himself belonged to the Titans, he is nevertheless represented as having assisted Zeus against the Titans Prom. But when Zeus succeeded to the kingdom of heaven, and wanted to extirpate the whole race of man, the place of which he proposed to give to quite a new race of beings, Prometheus prevented the execution of the scheme, and saved the human race from destruction Prom.

But, as in all these things he had acted contrary to the will of Zeus, the latter ordered Hephaestus to chain him to a rock in Scythia, which was done in the presence of Cratos and Bia, two ministers of Zeus. Hermes then likewise appears, and desires him to make known a prophecy which was of great importance to Zeus, for Prometheus knew that by a certain woman Zeus would beget a son, who was to dethrone his father, and Zeus wanted to have a more accurate knowledge of this decree of fate.

But Prometheus steadfastly refused to reveal the decree of fate, whereupon Zeus, by a thunderbolt, sent Prometheus, together with the rock to which he was chained, into Tartarus Horat. After the lapse of a long time, Prometheus returned to the upper world, to endure a fresh course of suffering, for he was now fastened to mount Caucasus, and tormented by an eagle, which every day, or every third day, devoured his liver, which was restored again in the night Apollon.

This state of suffering was to last until some other god, of his own accord, should take his place, and descend into Tartarus for him Prom. This came to pass when Cheiron, who had been incurably wounded by an arrow of Heracles, desired to go into Hades; and Zeus allowed him to supply the place of Prometheus Apollod. According to others, however, Zeus himself delivered Prometheus, when at length the Titan was prevailed upon to reveal to Zeus the decree of fate, that, if he should become by Thetis the either of a son, that son should deprive him of the sovereignty.

There was also an account, stating that Prometheus had created men out of earth and water, at the very beginning of the human race, or after the flood of Deucalion, when Zeus is said to have ordered him and Athena to make men out of the mud, and the winds to breathe life into them Apollod. Prometheus is said to have given to men something of all the qualities possessed by the other animals Horat Carm.

The kind of earth out of which Prometheus formed men was shown in later times near Panopeus in Phocis Paus. Prometheus, in the legend, often appears in connection with Athena, e. At Athens Prometheus had a sanctuary in the Academy, from whence a torch-race took place in honour of him Paus. Hesiod, Theogony ff trans. And she bare him a stout-hearted son, Atlas. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 18 trans. Weir Smyth Greek tragedy C5th B. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. Aldrich Greek mythographer C2nd A.

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. Oldfather Greek historian C1st B. Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface trans. Grant Roman mythographer C2nd A. Oppian, Halieutica 5. Mair Greek poet C3rd A. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound ff trans. Herodotus, Histories 4. Godley Greek historian C5th B. When Zeus was ready to obliterate the bronze generation of men, Prometheus advised Deukalion to fashion an ark, which he then outfitted with provisions and launched himself with Pyrrha aboard.

Zeus presently flooded most of Hellas with a great downpour of rain from the sky, destroyed all the people except for a few who took refuge on high mountains nearby.

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. Rieu Greek epic C3rd B. Its neighbours call the land Haimonia Haemonia , and in it stands Iolkos Iolcus , my own town. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae trans. Hellen by Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus. Pyrrha is the wife of Deukalion, Prometheus' son. By lying with Pyrrha, Zeus cheats Prometheus of his claim to being the ancestor of the kings of men.

Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. Melville Roman epic C1st B. Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. This arrow, they say, is one of the weapons of Hercules Heracles , with which he is said to have killed the eagle which ate the liver of Prometheus. It seems not unprofitable to speak of Prometheus at greater length. When the men of old with great ceremony used to carry on the sacrificial rites of the immortal gods, they would burn the victims entire in the flame of the sacrifice. And so, when the poor were prevented from making sacrifices on account of the great expense, Prometheus, who with his wonderful wisdom is thought to have made men, by his pleading is said to have obtained permission from Jove [Zeus] for them to cast only a part of the victim into the fire, and to use the rest for their own food.

This practice custom later established. Since he had obtained this permission, not as from a covetous man, but easily, as from a god, Prometheus himself sacrifices two bulls.

When he had first placed their entrails on the altar, he put the remaining flesh of the two bulls in one heap, covering it with an oxhide. Whatever bones there were he covered with the other skin and put it down between them, offering Jove [Zeus] the choice of either part for himself.

Jupiter [Zeus], although he didn't act with divine forethought, nor as a god who ought to foresee everything, was deceived by Prometheus--sinve we have started to believe the tale! And so after this, in solemn rites and sacrifices, when the flesh of victims has been consumed, they burn with fire the remaining parts which are the gods. But, to come back to the subject, Jupiter [Zeus], when he realized what had been done, in anger took fire from mortals, lest the favour of Prometheus should seem to have more weight than the power of the gods, and that uncooked flesh should not be useful to men.

Prometheus, however, who was accustomed to scheming, planned by his own efforts to bring back the fire that had been taken from men. So, when the others were away, he approached the fire of Jove, and with a small bit of this shut in a fennel-stalk he came joyfully, seeming to fly, not to run, tossing the stalk so that the air shut in with its vapours should not put out the flame in so narrow a space.

Up to this time, then, men who bring good news usually come with speed. In the rivalry of the games they also make it a practice for the runners to run, shaking torches after the manner of Prometheus. In return for this deed, Jupiter, to confer a like favour on men, gave a woman to them, fashioned by Vulcanus [Hephaistos Hephaestus ], and endowed with all kinds of gifts by the will of the gods.

For this reason she was called Pandora. But Prometheus he bound with an iron chain to a mountain in Scythia named Caucasus for thirty thousand years, as Aeschylus, writer of tragedies, says. Then, too, he sent an eagle to him to eat out his liver which was constantly renewed at night. Some have said that this eagle was born from Typhon and Echidna, other from Terra Earth [Gaia] and Tartarus, but many point out it was made by the hands of Vulcanus and given life by Jove.

The following reason for the release of Prometheus has been handed down. When Jupiter [Zeus], moved by the beauty of Thetis, sought her in marriage, he couldn't win the consent of the timid maiden, but none the less kept planning to bring it about.

At that time the Parcae [Moirai, Fates] were said to have prophesied what the natural order of events should be. They said that the son of Thetis' husband, whoever he might be, would be more famous than his father. Prometheus heard this as he kept watch, not from inclination but from necessity, and reported it to Jove.

He, fearing that what he had done to his father Saturnus in a similar situation, would happened to him, namely, that he would be robbed of his power, gave up by necessity his desire to wed Thetis, and out of gratitude to Prometheus thanked him and freed him from his chains.

But he didn't go so far as to free him from all binding, since he had sworn to that, but for commemoration bade him bind his finger with the two things, namely, with stone and with iron. Following this practice men have rings fashioned of stone and iron, that they may seem to be appeasing Prometheus. Some also have said that he wore a wreath, as if to claim that he as victor had sinned without punishment.

And so men began the practice of wearing wreaths at times of great rejoicing and victory. You may observe this in sports and banquets. But to come back to the beginning of the inquiry and the death of the eagle. Hercules, when sent by Eurystheus for the apples of the Hesperides, out of ignorance of the way came to Prometheus, who was bound on Mount Caucasus, as we have shown above.

When victor, he returned to Prometheus to tell him that that Draco we have mentioned was slain, and to thank him for his kindness since he had pointed out the way. Straightway he gave what honour he could to the one that deserved it, for he killed the eagle and since it was slain, men began, when victims were sacrificed, to offer livers on the altars of the gods to satisfy them in place of the liver of Prometheus.

Weir Smyth L. From the Scholiast on Prom. Some, who follow Canter in identifying the Pyrphoros with the Pyrkaeus , maintain that it was the satyric drama, and dealt with the Attic worship of the god.

A satyr-play in the Prometheus-trilogy is unknown. Often my mother Themis, or Gaia Gaea, Earth though one form, she had many names , had foretold to me the way in which the future was fated to come to pass.

Dionysus myth and cult pdf files

Detail from a wine cup attributed to Phei- dippos ca. Walterus Otto summarum artium liberalium litterarum studiis utriusque linguae perfecte eruditus, musarum semper amator, v. Te di manes tui ut quietam patiantur atque ita tueantur optamus. Otto I. Preface 2. The Birthplace of the Cult of Diony sus 3.


Myth and Cult- Walter F. Otto - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or analysis of the spiritual significance of the Greek myth and cult of Dionysus. is capable of conceiving the creators of all that is significant.


Dionysus. Myth and Cult- Walter F. Otto

Print Send Add Share. Notes Abstract: This paper examines connections and similarities between Demeter and Dionysus in the context of literature, cult and iconography, mainly from the Archaic to the Classical Period. The evidence for these connections is drawn from a number of primary and secondary sources, including plays, contemporary prose and archaeological evidence. The connection between Demeter and Dionysus is not only observable in the present day in a number of different contexts, but is commented on by contemporary figures as well. There seems to be a general increase in the manner and frequency with which the two deities are linked over time, in particular through the figure of Iacchos.

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Dionysus. Myth and Cult- Walter F. Otto

Hephaestus , Greek Hephaistos , in Greek mythology , the god of fire. Originally a deity of Asia Minor and the adjoining islands in particular Lemnos , Hephaestus had an important place of worship at the Lycian Olympus. His cult reached Athens not later than about bce although it scarcely touched Greece proper and arrived in Campania not long afterward.

Shivain Initial Vedic PerceptionTheTrinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and MaheshaShiva, the Mahadeva, represents one of the threevisible forms, or the functional aspects of God,namely, the creation, preservation and dissolution,that is, bringing the cosmos into existence, sustainingit and finally withdrawing it from existing. LordShiva represents the last of these three aspects,that is, dissolution or destruction of the cosmos. The other two aspects, the creation and the preservation,are represented respectively by Prajapati or Brahma,and Vishnu. Prajapati Brahma and Vishnu are Vedicgods.

His attempts to better the lives of his creation brought him into conflict with Zeus. Firstly he tricked the gods out of the best portion of the sacrificial feast, acquiring the meat for the feasting of man. Then, when Zeus withheld fire, he stole it from heaven and delivered it to mortal kind hidden inside a fennel-stalk. As punishment for these rebellious acts, Zeus ordered the creation of Pandora the first woman as a means to deliver misfortune into the house of man, or as a way to cheat mankind of the company of the good spirits. Prometheus meanwhile, was arrested and bound to a stake on Mount Kaukasos Caucasus where an eagle was set to feed upon his ever-regenerating liver or, some say, heart.

Psychoanalytic Approaches to Myth

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His thyrsus , sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a weapon used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios "the liberator" , his wine, music and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care, and subvert the oppressive restraints of the powerful. Those who partake of his mysteries are believed to become possessed and empowered by the god himself. In his religion, identical with or closely related to Orphism , Dionysus was believed to have been born from the union of Zeus and Persephone , and to have himself represented a chthonic or underworld aspect of Zeus. Many believed that he had been born twice, having been killed and reborn as the son of Zeus and the mortal Semele.

Он был известен среди сотрудников, он пользовался репутацией патриота и идеалиста… честного человека в мире, сотканном из лжи. За годы, прошедшие после появления в АНБ Сьюзан, Стратмор поднялся с поста начальника Отдела развития криптографии до второй по важности позиции во всем агентстве. Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха. Он редко встречался со Стратмором с глазу на глаз, но когда такое случалось, это можно было сравнить с битвой титанов. Фонтейн был гигантом из гигантов, но Стратмора это как будто не касалось.

Вот. Он печально на нее посмотрел. - Мидж… у меня нет никакой жизни.

Записывается. Телефонные компании могут сообщить, кто вам звонил и как долго вы говорили. - Сделайте это, - приказал .

 Я должен был знать. Да взять хотя бы его электронное имя.  - Боже мой, Северная Дакота. Сокращенно NDAKOTA. Подумать .

Все вокруг недоуменно переглянулись. Соши лихорадочно прогоняла текст на мониторе в обратном направлений и наконец нашла то, что искала. - Да. Здесь говорится о другом изотопе урана.

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