Phytoremediation Of Contaminated Soil And Water Pdf
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- A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation
- Phytoremediation: A Promising Approach for Revegetation of Heavy Metal-Polluted Land
Soil contamination has led to serious land tenure problems, reduction in land usability for agricultural production; as a consequence, food insecurity is nowadays a global challenge. Indeed, with rapid population growth across the world, the food demand for consumption has drastically increased and traditional ways of producing food cannot meet with the actual demand. Industrialization has been acknowledged as a way out to sustain humanity with food.
Heavy metal—contaminated agricultural soil is a complex and serious phenomenon that has hazardous effects on the environment and, consequently, on humans, animals, plants, and beneficial microorganisms by influencing and tainting food chains, soil, irrigation or potable water, aquifers, and the surrounding atmosphere Wuana and Okieimen, Cadmium Cd is an important poisonous element that is not known for any essential biological function. Furthermore, Cd may cause malfunctioning of metabolic processes Campbell, In plants, Cd causes various types of damage, such as the disturbance of metal homeostasis resulting in iron deficiency in the shoot Fodor et al. As a result, the biosynthesis of chlorophylls, the formation of Chl—protein complexes, and the development of thylakoid membranes are highly disturbed Basa et al. Copper Cu is an important essential micronutrient that participates in many vital physiological functions of plants, including acting as a catalyzer of redox reactions in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the cytoplasm of cells Fargasova, or as an electron carrier during plant respiration Yruela,
Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. Commonly high concentrations of cesium Cs and strontium 90 Sr are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings.
A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation
Biotechnology in the Sustainable Environment pp Cite as. Over the past several years, scientists have discovered many examples of living plants that can remove heavy metals and other pollutants from soil and water. This potential approach to cleaning the environment, termed phytoremediation, draws on our centuries of experience in cultivating crops and is emerging as a low cost treatment technology. The idea that plants can be used for environmental remediation is not new. Extensive research on using plants and entire ecosystems for treating radionuclide contamination took place in Russia in the early s Timofeev-Resovsky, et al.
Heavy metal accumulation in soil has been rapidly increased due to various natural processes and anthropogenic industrial activities. As heavy metals are non-biodegradable, they persist in the environment, have potential to enter the food chain through crop plants, and eventually may accumulate in the human body through biomagnification. Owing to their toxic nature, heavy metal contamination has posed a serious threat to human health and the ecosystem.
Phytoremediation: A Promising Approach for Revegetation of Heavy Metal-Polluted Land
The potential of Arundo donax L. The growth and physiology of plants were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Relatively low Cd uptake occurred during soil experiment with low translocation factor TF values. Consequent to global industrialization, heavy metal pollution is a widespread problem which has become a major environmental concern due to hazardous effects on human and environmental health. In industrialized societies, heavy metals are the world over environmental contaminants. Air or water pollution by metals varies from soil pollution, because heavy metals persevere in soil for a longer time period as compared with the other compartment of the biosphere [ 1 ]. Cadmium Cd , a highly toxic metal pollutant of soils, inhibits root and shoot growth and yield production, affects nutrient uptake and homeostasis, is frequently accumulated by agriculturally important crops, and then enters the food chain with a significant potential to impair animal and human health [ 3 ].
Phytoremediation technologies use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants. Although attractive for its cost, phytoremediation has not been demonstrated to redress any significant environmental challenge to the extent that contaminated space has been reclaimed. Phytoremediation is proposed as a cost-effective plant-based approach of environmental remediation that takes advantage of the ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to detoxify various compounds. The concentrating effect results from the ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate chemicals. The remediation effect is quite different.
Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. This paper aims to compile some information about heavy metals of arsenic, lead, and mercury As, Pb, and Hg sources, effects and their treatment. It also reviews deeply about phytoremediation technology, including the heavy metal uptake mechanisms and several research studies associated about the topics.
There are several different types of phytoremediation mechanisms. These are:. Rhizosphere biodegradation. In this process, the plant releases natural substances through its roots, supplying nutrients to microorganisms in the soil. The microorganisms enhance biological degradation. In this process, chemical compounds produced by the plant immobilize contaminants, rather than degrade them.
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