Ethiopian Mustard Research And Production In Southeast Us Pdf
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- Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand
Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata , white mustard Brassica alba , Ethiopian mustard B. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand. Brassicaceae comprise a diverse family of plants and provide one of the most extensive and varied range of end products used by man from a single plant genus.
Michael J. Brassica carinata, sometimes called Ethiopian mustard, Abyssinian mustard, or simply carinata, is an annual oilseed crop used for the commercial production of jet fuel. Carinata by-products include seed meal for animal feed Agrisoma , and residue may act as a bio-suppressant against nematodes Oka It is similar to canola in growth habit. It is grown during the winter in the southeastern United States and shows potential as an alternative winter crop for the region.
One of the challenges to commercialization of this crop in the region has been frost damage. Susceptibility to frost damage depends on temperature, duration at a given temperature, and crop growth stage. Genotype screening trials throughout the Southeast are underway to identify more frost-tolerant cultivars. This document serves as a guide to identify levels of frost damage as well as management issues related to frost damage of carinata in the Southeast.
Be aware that this is a new crop to the Southeast and research on this topic is ongoing. This publication represents the latest information available. More information about carinata production in Florida is available from Seepaul et al. The severity of frost damage depends on the crop stage.
At the seedling stage when roots are shallow and there are no carbohydrate reserves, frost can kill the crop. At the rosette stage, leaves protect the growing point and roots are deeper, resulting in greater frost tolerance, although leaf tissue damage can occur.
After bolting, the stalk and growing points are most susceptible to frost damage. Stalk damage typically results in tissue damage several inches above the soil surface, where structural stresses are high. Death of the growing point commonly results in new shoot growth from the crown of the plant. Minor frost damage first appears as wilting of the leaves, and within about one week presents as bleaching of the leaves, particularly near the tips and leaf margins Figure 1.
If frost damage is more severe, these areas may become necrotic, but the plant is expected to outgrow this level of damage with minimal yield loss Figure 2.
Figure 1. Leaf bleaching is typically evident 1—2 weeks after a freeze event in carinata. The crop will outgrow this type of damage. Table 1.
Cumulative hours below temperature thresholds four weeks prior to the date the photos in Figure 1 were taken.
Figure 2. Tissue affected by cold damage may become necrotic. The crop will outgrow this level of damage. Table 2. Cumulative hours below temperature thresholds four weeks prior to the date the photo in Figure 2 was taken.
Severe cold damage is shown in Figure 3. This level of damage is expected to reduce crop stands and yield. Note that the aboveground tissue was severely affected, but the roots did not die. The plants in Figure 3 grew back from the growing point, but may have also resprouted at the crown if the roots did not freeze.
Replanting of this field is not recommended due to lateness and expected continued crop growth. Figure 3. More severe cold damage of carinata during early bolting. This level of damage is expected to reduce stands and yield. Note that aboveground tissue was severely affected, but neither the growing points nor roots died.
This field generally grew back from the growing point, but could have resprouted at the crown if the damage was more severe.
Table 3. Cumulative hours below temperature thresholds four weeks prior to the date the photo in Figure 3 was taken. After bolting, frost damage of the stalk can be more problematic Figure 4. Splitting of the stem may be evident between the soil surface and several inches off the ground, but the stalk can freeze without splitting, effectively clogging up the vascular tissue later in the season and presenting as a wilted appearance.
When this happens, the stem can hollow out at the point of damage. Figure 4. Left: severe frost damage of carinata in Quincy, FL. Note growing point damage on the left and lodging on the right.
Right: Recovery and regrowth after lodging caused by stem weakening during frost. Table 4. Cumulative hours below temperature thresholds four weeks prior to the date the left photo in Figure 4 was taken.
Figure 5. Lodging often results, but the plant may continue to grow. In severe cases, regrowth will occur at the crown. Figure 6. Frost damage during pod fill is problematic due to poor seed set and seed abortion. This may cause undeveloped seeds and empty pods, leading to severe crop losses. A crop that has suffered frost damage during pod fill may resprout from the crown. A field suffering this level of damage may be considered a complete loss.
While frost damage can be severe, carinata has shown impressive resiliency. Carinata can promote branching to compensate for stand loss, but there is some evidence that secondary branches may not be as productive as primary branches. Figure 7. The same carinata genotype shown after a hard frost left, Jan.
Note that increased branching can fill in the gaps, although secondary branches may not be as productive as primary branches. Table 5. Cumulative hours below temperature thresholds four weeks prior to the date the left photo in Figure 5 was taken. A general recommendation is that carinata should be sown approximately six weeks before first frost. In the Florida Panhandle, plant carinata during the first two weeks of November.
In North Carolina, planting should occur between mid-September and early October. Earlier plantings will reduce yield, and later plantings are more likely to result in small plants at the seedling stage with shallow roots during freeze events. Plants at this stage are more susceptible to frost damage and may require replanting if the roots freeze. Timely planting allows plants to develop into the rosette stage, when frost tolerance is greater, during times when the probability of frost is highest.
Do not over-apply early-season nitrogen N. Excessive nitrogen will promote luxuriant growth that is more susceptible to frost damage.
Calibrate your spreader so you do not over-apply. Topdress N applications are typically made between bolting and flowering. Be advised that this is a relatively new crop to the Southeast. Ongoing research and new information will change production recommendations. Additionally, promising new carinata varieties with improved frost tolerance and yield gains derived from the breeding program are being developed to fit the expansion of the southern tier commercial production area Figure 8.
Check with your local Extension agent for the latest production information. Figure 8. Frost-tolerant carinata lines derived through breeding indicate that promising varieties for tolerating hard freeze events will be available to the region in the near future. Accessed on May 7, Oka, Y. Seepaul, R. Bliss, D.
Wright, J. Marois, R. Leon, N. Dufault, S. George, and S. Original publication date May This material is based upon work that is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U. Department of Agriculture, under award number Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U. Department of Agriculture. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences IFAS is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations.
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Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand
The large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. Farmers have few practical options other than to spray insecticides to protect their crop. In this study, an attempt was made during — and — crop seasons at Ludhiana, India, to evaluate Ethiopian mustard, Brassica carinata A. Braun as a trap crop to manage this pest as an alternate pest management strategy.
In vitro propagation of Ethiopian mustard Brassica carinata A Brassica carinata A. Braun is an amphi-diploid species that originated from interspecific hybridization between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea in the highlands of Ethiopia.
Notify me when new publications are added. In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant.
Час спустя, когда Беккер уже окончательно опоздал на свой матч, а Сьюзан откровенно проигнорировала трехстраничное послание на интеркоме, оба вдруг расхохотались. И вот эти два интеллектуала, казалось бы, неспособные на вспышки иррациональной влюбленности, обсуждая проблемы лингвистической морфологии и числовые генераторы, внезапно почувствовали себя подростками, и все вокруг окрасилось в радужные тона. Сьюзан ни слова не сказала об истинной причине своей беседы с Дэвидом Беккером - о том, что она собиралась предложить ему место в Отделе азиатской криптографии. Судя по той увлеченности, с которой молодой профессор говорил о преподавательской работе, из университета он не уйдет. Сьюзан решила не заводить деловых разговоров, чтобы не портить настроение ни ему ни .
Бринкерхофф почти физически ощущал, как интенсивно работают клеточки ее мозга. - Помнишь, что случилось в прошлом году, когда Стратмор занимался антисемитской террористической группой в Калифорнии? - напомнила. Бринкерхофф кивнул. Это было одним из крупнейших достижений Стратмора. С помощью ТРАНСТЕКСТА, взломавшего шифр, ему удалось узнать о заговоре и бомбе, подложенной в школе иврита в Лос-Анджелесе.
Он решительно подошел к терминалу и запустил весь набор программ системных оценок ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Твое сокровище в беде, коммандер, - пробормотал. - Не веришь моей интуиции.