List Of Magical Herbs And Their Uses Pdf
File Name: list of magical herbs and their uses .zip
Sign Correspondence List Herbs: Calendula flowers and hibiscus tea.
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Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture
A comprehensive compilation is provided of the medicinal plants of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar formerly Burma. This contribution, containing families, genera, and species, was compiled from earlier treatments, monographs, books, and pamphlets, with some medicinal uses and preparations translated from Burmese to English. The entry for each species includes the Latin binomial, author s , common Myanmar and English names, range, medicinal uses and preparations, and additional notes.
Preserving the traditional knowledge of Myanmar healers contributes to Target 13 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. In many parts of the world traditional knowledge and biodiversity still play an import role in health care, culture, religion, food security, environment, and sustainable development.
Moreover, many widely used plant-based medicines are derived from traditional knowledge. Preserving, protecting, and promoting if scientifically supported traditional knowledge is of key importance. It is with this aim that we compiled a list of plant species and their medicinal uses in Myanmar based on published accounts. The information contained in this compilation comes from popular knowledge and was not scientifically tested in terms of the efficacy of the uses of the plants listed.
Some of the earliest literature concerning the medicinal plants of Myanmar includes:. In , when the Union of Burma first gained its independence from the United Kingdom, the first Burmese government began to build a pharmaceutical factory, the Burma Pharmaceutical Industry B. This factory officially opened in Initially they had to depend almost entirely on imported raw materials.
However, in the B. Raw Material Project was set up with the objective of providing as much of the raw material as possible from indigenous sources. Raw Material Project with its work. From to , Nordal studied the possible utilization of the medicinal plants in the Myanmar flora. For his study, Nordal contacted those he considered the most important representatives of the indigenous system of medicine.
These included Buddhist monks, medicine men, and drug traders. Books and written sources were also used during his research resulting in the compilation of his publication, The Medicinal Plants and Crude Drugs of Burma. In the course of his work, he also built a herbarium of these medicinal plants, created a collection of the corresponding crude drugs, and collected as much information as possible on the medicinal tradition connected with the plants.
Burma Medicinal Research Institute, Rangoon. Rangoon: Agricultural Corporation. In Burmese. Ministry of Health, Myanmar. Yangon, Myanmar: Ministry of Forestry. World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia. Pyongyang, DPR Korea. Update Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database. Traditional medicine is widely practiced in Myanmar by the majority of the population either as an alternate or as a supplement to modern medicine Thein Swe and Sein Win The social groups and traditional communities that have generated the knowledge of traditional medicine in Myanmar include Buddhist monks, sesayas local doctors , ambulating medicine men, traders in the local drug bazaars, ambulating drug traders, and professional drug collectors Nordal Old Burmese scriptures that contain medical traditions and health problems in addition to religious matters are written in a Burmese alphabet and language than can only be translated with special training.
Buddhist monks have translated these scriptures, often written on palm leaves Corypha umbraculifera L. Sesayas are practitioners of local medical traditions whose knowledge has been handed down through their ancestors. Sesayas and their helpers prepare medicines in laboratories in their own homes. Ambulating medicine men are free lancers that travel from place to place accompanied by an apprentice.
Drug traders of the local open-air bazaars are often prepared to share knowledge about the properties of their goods. Ambulating drug traders are mostly Ghurkas people originating from Tibet who would spread their products in the streets for display.
Professional drug collectors make their living collecting crude drugs for the drug bazaars and for the sesayas, and they often have extensive and reliable knowledge of the medicinal local flora Nordal Botanical exploration of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar formerly Burma , which spans both tropical and subtropical biomes, began in the s when the country was under the rule of the British Kress et al. Botanical investigations of the region sharply decreased soon after World War II.
Myanmar is exceptionally rich in plant diversity, but very few new plant collections had been made in this area during the second half of the s Kress et al.
The first list of plants specifically for Myanmar was compiled in by J. The original edition includes 2, species, and the last published edition of has about 7, species. Kress et al. The treatment lists over 11, species. The knowledge of the flora is still growing, as the native status of many species is incomplete. Myanmar occupies an area of , sq. It is bordered by India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal on the west, China to the north and northeast, Laos and Thailand to the east, and the Andaman Sea to the south.
With the exception of the centrally located Ayeyarwady valley and delta, the most populated area, the terrain is generally hilly and mountainous. The climate is mostly monsoonal, with cloudy, rainy, hot humid summers June to September, southwest monsoon and less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during the winter December to April, northeast monsoon. Local climate, which has a major influence on the diversity and distribution of plant species, is determined by the combination of temperature, rainfall, and elevation.
Geology and the resultant soils are major controlling factors in the local distribution of forest types and of individual species, although to some extent climate and soil counteract one another Stamp The vegetation consists of tropical lowland evergreen rain forest, primarily in the south; tropical hill evergreen rain forest and temperate evergreen rain forest above m in the east, north, and west; semi-evergreen rain forest in a narrow belt bordering an arid central plain; mixed deciduous forest with teak Tetona grandis and dry dipterocarp forest centrally; coniferous forests in Shan and Chin States, with Pinus khasya between — m on dry slopes; oak and rhododendron forests on wetter slopes; and dry forest and scrub formations where average annual rainfall is below cm.
Additionally, large tracts of bamboo forest are scattered throughout the country. As recently as , Myanmar was nearly three-quarters forested Murphy Myers , quoting Forest Department figures, stated that about sq.
The information presented here was compiled utilizing data from written sources and databases on Asian and Myanmar medicinal plants; the Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar , which up-dates the largely unavailable earlier checklists with a more complete treatment of the grasses, orchids, and herbs; and, importantly, the English translation provided by Thi Thi Ta of Burmese Medicinal Plants Agricultural Corporation , an important and extensive book on Burmese medicinal plants, how they are utilized, and their specific preparations.
The families, genera, and species are arranged alphabetically under the following categories: Ferns, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Under each genus, the species are listed under the Latin binomial followed by the author s and synonyms, English and Myanmar common names, global range and approximate distribution in Myanmar including if cultivated , uses in Myanmar for the many species from the newly translated Burmese publication, preparation is also included as well as detailed uses , notes, and references.
The family and genus names utilized here are in accordance with those given as taxa accepted in Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Stevens and The Plant List Synonyms are included when the synonym is used in the original referenced texts.
Myanmar distributions presented here are those given by Kress et al. Distributions are based on data from the original list, existing specimens, and estimates from taxonomic specialists. Common names given here come from the various sources, but most are those given in Kress et al. This list contains families, genera, and species of medicinal plants.
Two species are listed as Extinct in the Wild: Brugmansia arborea L. Both species survive only in cultivation, and thus the size of wild populations of these species is zero. Four species are deemed threatened: Coptis teeta Wall.
Exploitation, unregulated collection, and forest degradation are the primary threats to these species. Two species are listed as Near Threatened Cycas rumphii Miq. Of the species that have received national and global assessments, species were deemed threatened 15 Critically Endangered, 31 Endangered, 55 Vulnerable , 66 Near Threatened, Least Concerned, and 29 Data Deficient totals do not add as most species received multiple assessments and were placed in multiple threat categories.
The median number of botanic gardens a medicinal plant species is found in is 18 gardens. Eighteen species are found in only one botanic garden, while species are found in 2—10 botanic gardens. The species found in the greatest number of gardens is Taxus baccata L.
Of the threatened species listed in the IUCN Red List, the Endangered species Coptis teeta is found in three botanic gardens and the Endangered Cupressus goveniana is found in 45 botanic gardens. The Vulnerable Aquilaria malaccensis is found in five gardens while the Vulnerable Santalum album is found in 22 gardens.
The number of botanic gardens worldwide that have digitally recorded accessions of each of the medicinal plant species treated in this study. Mounce et al. Further, to reduce the pressures of harvesting plants from wild resources, there are calls for conservation strategies e. Agricultural Corporation Burmese Medicinal Plants.
Agricultural Corporation, Rangoon. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond. The Botanical Review 83 2 : — Chinese Medicine The Hague, The Netherlands. Asian Life Sciences Suppl. IUCN, Gland.
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 1— Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 99 2 : — Nature Plants 3: — Murphy M The geography of Burma. Journal of Geography 17— Environmentalist 8: 1— Version 7. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. The Plant List Version 1. Published on the Internet.
Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts: Volume 1
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, for medicinal purposes, or for fragrances; excluding vegetables and other plants consumed for macronutrients. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs generally refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant either fresh or dried , while spices are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds , bark , roots and fruits. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, and in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs ; in medicinal or spiritual use, any parts of the plant might be considered as "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark and cambium , resin and pericarp. In botany, the noun "herb" refers to a "plant that does not produce a woody stem", and the adjective "herbaceous" means "herb-like", referring to parts of the plant that are green and soft in texture". In botany , the term herb refers to a herbaceous plant ,  defined as a small, seed-bearing plant without a woody stem in which all aerial parts i.
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Metrics details. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period AC — The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae 35 , Lamiaceae 25 , and Solanaceae
Metrics details. Many previously recognized Biblical plants are in no way related to the flora of the Bible lands. Accordingly, the list needs revision. We re-examine the list of possible medicinal plants in the Bible based on new studies in Hebrew Biblical philology and etymology, new studies on the Egyptian and Mesopotamian medicinal use of plants, on ethnobotany and on archaeobotany. In our survey, we suggest reducing this list to 45 plant species.
Azaleas, camellias and maples are used with restraint with the sole purpose of marking the changing seasons.
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Инструкция по ее изготовлению была проста, как рецепт приготовления жженого сахара. - Плутоний и уран, - повторял Джабба.