composting and biogas production pdf

Composting And Biogas Production Pdf

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Published: 05.05.2021

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In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals.

This study aimed to design a biogas digester that works thermophilically and mesophilically and tested its performance to produce biogas and digestate. This study used some experimental methods, which consists of: 1 design and construction process of the digester which can facilitate the thermophilic process as a pretreatment of the feedstock and the anaerobic digestion process of the substrate; 2 determination of the quantity of biogas, liquid digestate, and compost; and 3 testing digestate quality as a liquid organic fertilizer for Ipomoea reptans. The built biogas digester was able to accommodate thermophilic digestion that runs intensely in the pretreatment tank, where the complex organic compounds, namely cellulose and hemicellulose, decomposed intensively, so that it becomes a suitable substrate. The highest Ipomoea reptans growth was achieved by digestate treatment from banana waste. Digestate treatment as a liquid organic fertilizer is able to provide a better supply of nutrients for plants.

Design of biogas digester with thermophilic pretreatment for reducing fruits wastes

Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen anaerobically , primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste , manure , municipal waste , plant material , sewage , green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms , which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials. Biogas is primarily methane CH 4 and carbon dioxide CO 2 and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide H 2 S , moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane , hydrogen , and carbon monoxide CO can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel ; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking.

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Pig manure utilization and valorization is an important topic with tightening regulations focused on ecological and safety issues. By itself pig manure is a poor substrate for biogas production because of its excessive nitrogen content relative to available organic carbon. Such substrate is alkaline, and methanogenesis can be suppressed, and so additional substrates with high organic carbon must be added. The most promising is straw, which is available from adjacent biogas plant cultures. However, the abundant lignocellulosic biomass of wheat straw undergoes slow decomposition, and only a fraction of the chemical energy can be converted into biogas; thus economical methods for pretreatment increasing bioavailability are sought. A method was investigated to increase the methane yield in a full-scale plant for co-fermenting pig manure with corn silage, which was the default substrate in the original source reactors. Increased lignocellulosic bioavailability of wheat straw was achieved by combining liquid hot water LHW and steam explosion SE.

The United States produces more than 70 million tons of organic waste each year. While source reduction and feeding the hungry are necessary priorities for reducing needless food waste, organic wastes are numerous and extend to non-edible sources, including livestock manure, agriculture wastes, waste water, and inedible food wastes. When these wastes are improperly managed, they pose a significant risk to the environment and public health.

Стратмор медленно повернулся к Сьюзан. Тоже неподвижная, она стояла у дверей шифровалки. Стратмор посмотрел на ее залитое слезами лицо, и ему показалось, что вся она засветилась в сиянии дневного света. Ангел, подумал .

 Я понимаю, - сказал.  - Извините за беспокойство. Повернувшись, он направился через фойе к выходу, где находилось вишневое бюро, которое привлекло его внимание, когда он входил.

Introduction

Сьюзан остановилась, собираясь с духом. Звук выстрела продолжал звучать у нее в голове. Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению. Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле. Когда глаза Сьюзан немного привыкли к темноте, она посмотрела на дыру, зияющую в стеклянной стене.

Она достала из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула. Беккер увидел в ее руке сережку в виде черепа.

 - Быть может, придется ждать, пока Дэвид не найдет копию Танкадо. Стратмор посмотрел на нее неодобрительно. - Если Дэвид не добьется успеха, а ключ Танкадо попадет в чьи-то руки… Коммандеру не нужно было договаривать.

Он кивнул. - Si, echame un poco de vodka. Бармен с видимым облегчением приготовил ему напиток.

Я совсем забыл, что электричество вырубилось. Он принялся изучать раздвижную дверь. Прижал ладони к стеклу и попробовал раздвинуть створки. Потные ладони скользили по гладкой поверхности.

 - Они ничего не найдут. Мы погибли.

3 comments

Evie F.

Concepts and comments 4 pdf free download algebra and trigonometry sullivan 10th edition pdf

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Joe M.

High-load reactor technology for napier grass and silage. Thermophilic process. Generators.

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