a handbook of research methods in clinical and health psychology pdf

A Handbook Of Research Methods In Clinical And Health Psychology Pdf

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This title is a practical guide to carrying out research in health psychology and clinical psychology. It bridges the gap between undergraduate and postgraduate study.

Research Methods for Clinical and Health Psychology

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Start by pressing the button below! Marks and Catherine Marie Sykes, First published Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, , this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.

Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. Marks 11 Synthesising evidence: systematic reviews, meta-analysis and preference analysis David F.

Paul Camic is Professor at Columbia College. David F. Cathenne M. The book incorporates a number of features intended to assist the novice researcher. Key terms are highlighted in bold type. Each chapter concludes with a chapter summary and a small list of recommended reading that may be consulted for a more in-depth treatment of the methods described.

In this book we have sought to combine the advantages of drawing on specialist input for each chapter while maintaining coherence across chapters. As editors we have co-authored each chapter to ensure that the book as a whole provides coherent coverage of research methods, with continuity of style and terminology, and no duplication or inconsistency. In addition to their academic training, all these authors have carried out research in a variety of health care settings and reported their studies in high quality peer-reviewed journals.

We acknowledge with appreciation our collaborators' efforts to create a text that is well informed, readable and concise.

Last, but certainly not least, we thank our respective partners for their forbearance while we worked unsociable hours on the manuscript, often to the neglect of our domestic duties. One genuine frog is worth a bucketful of toads.

Anon What's that? Frogs and toads, indeed! What have they got to do with a book on research methods? This book is an introduction to methods for carrying out research in clinical and health psychology. It introduces the kinds of study designs and methods that are in common usage across the health sciences and which are of particular relevance to psychologists and social scientists.

This broad overview of the process of carrying out research will enable you to critically appraise published research, to evaluate the potential and limitations of a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, and to identify those that you may wish to use for particular research purposes.

We encourage the reader to apply the methods described here creatively to the particular unique setting in which she or he is planning a project. Obviously it is also impossible to list a complete set of features that will apply to all settings, times and places.

Policies, circumstances and contexts vary enormously across settings and across time, and readers will need to adapt the research methods to each new situation. A range of positions has been taken in this debate, ranging from realism and positivism at one end of the spectrum to constructivism and idealism at the other.

Subjectivity is viewed as pure, rational thought, internal to the individual, and separate from the body. The rational mind is viewed as the vehicle with which we can seek to understand and control a mechanical, physical world which includes our own bodies. Consequently, the task for research is to attempt to obtain accurate information about objective physical reality.

Having ascertained the causal laws that govern the physical world we can intervene to achieve desired objectives. This approach to research provided an extremely useful initial foundation for modern science and medicine, and proved so successful that it was also adopted by the emerging discipline of psychology.

Consequently, for most psychologists this is the most familiar approach to obtaining knowledge through research. Moreover, constructivists do not view the construction of meaning as a private, subjective matter, but as an essentially social process, since our habitual ways of thinking and acting are fundamentally shaped by social interaction, language and culture.

However, it is not the only valid and useful way of understanding the world. For example, religion, politics, art and personal experience all offer different but equally valid perspectives. However, death is actually a good example of an event that psychologists must consider from multiple points of view if they are to acknowledge and understand the psychological experience of health and illness.

For example, the post-positivist view is that although an objective reality exists, and we should seek to understand it, we can never gain perfect knowledge of it.

Similarly, many researchers are happy to concede that indeed there may be an independent external reality which constrains and shapes people's lives, but that it remains vitally important for researchers to take into account and investigate the way in which human experience including the process Introduction 5 and outcome of research is also shaped by subjective interpretation and social interaction.

A qualitative grounded theory analysis of interviews with patients might be undertaken by a realist who wanted to uncover their rationale for accepting or rejecting a particular treatment, or by a constructivist who wanted to explore how the treatment was perceived and depicted by the patients.

If the choice of method is based on the purpose of the research, rather than on epistemological assumptions about how to obtain valid knowledge, then it becomes possible to combine different methods in order to gain diverse forms of knowledge that can provide complementary insights House, The insights gained using different approaches will not necessarily be congruent or converging; rather, the insights from one perspective can be used to challenge, modify or elaborate the understandings reached with a different approach.

In this respect, qualitative data could be considered analogous to a video diary, which provides rich, personal information about what it is like for a certain person to be in a certain place. Data derived from quantitative methods is more like a map; it provides precise 6 Research methods for clinical and health psychology and economical information that is essential in order to discover the location and distance of a place relative to other places.

However, we also need maps in order to locate precisely experiences relative to other similar experiences for example, to determine whether a person's stress is greater than at a different time-point, or than that of other people , and to link them with other dimensions of experience for example, to determine whether stress causes or is caused by changes in physiological functioning. Similarly, different methods can serve different but complementary purposes with respect to applied research in health care.

Case studies can provide a sound foundation for informing health-related practice Fishman, , but planners and policy-makers may require quantitative data on prevalence and cost-effectiveness in order to be persuaded and to persuade others of the utility of planned health care provision, and to manage such provision effectively on a large scale.

Another example is the biological approach to the understanding of psychosis. The psychopharmacological treatments that have evolved from this approach are making a major contribution to patient wellbeing.

Yet the understanding of the experiences of patients requires methods that are tuned to the phenomenology of altered conscious experience. Since health and clinical psychology are applied disciplines that must be able to contribute to multidisciplinary research, it is vital to adopt a theoretical framework such as pragmatism that can embrace and integrate qualitative research into subjective experience and socio-cultural meanings and quantitative research into psychophysiology and evidence-based medicine.

Research methods can be viewed, not as recipes for mechanical knowledge production, but more as creative or adventurous means of inquiry Willig, Using qualitative or quantitative methods does not make one a particular kind of psychologist, nor does a particular kind of psychologist necessarily use qualitative or quantitative methods.

The critical issue is not the method used, but the theory, beliefs, values and political positioning, which underpin praxis, the translation of theory into action.

The next section of this chapter outlines some of the different theoretical and practical contexts in which clinical and health psychologists carry out their research. Introduction Box 1. However, patients may be less likely to adhere to this prescription than to a single slow-release dose of medication, which they may be less likely to forget to take and which will interfere less with their daily routine and identity as a basically healthy person.

How should the prescription of this medication be managed in the best interests of the patient? Rationale: Experimentally manipulate prescription to test effect on objective physiological status. Knowledge gained: Objective, practical information about which method of prescribing is more effective in achieving optimal blood levels of medication. Rationale: As above, but also relate information about objective physiological status to quantitative measures of subjective factors reported behaviour, recall, beliefs, intentions which may mediate relationship between prescription and physiological status.

Rationale: Acquire insight into the various meanings ascribed to single and multiple daily prescriptions in the context of different people's identities, daily lives, beliefs about medication, etc.

Rationale: Examine the socio-cultural functions of the normative discourses, possibilities for alternative discourses, ways in which power is negotiated in relation to prescription. Knowledge gained: Understanding of the socio-cultural implications of the identities and discursive strategies available to doctors and patients, and how these can be deployed to promote or resist particular forms of prescription. While clinical psychology and health psychology have different historical roots and specialised interests, physical and mental health can be regarded as two complementary aspects of health and illness.

In many countries the training pathways have common generic components, and there are strong overlaps between the interests of clinical and health psychologists in their work with patients in the health care system. It is therefore not surprising that a similar set of research methods are used by both groups and also by other specialists including nurses, doctors and paramedical staff.

The aims and methods of research in clinical psychology and health psychology depend on the context and the general orientation to undertaking research. Most clinical psychologists work in the health care system, although they may also work in private practice, carry out assessments for the criminal courts, and work in academic and research settings.

Others specialise in Introduction 9 forensic work involving correctional services in prisons and correctional facilities of various kinds. Clinical psychologists often work in multidisciplinary teams of health care professionals consisting of doctors, nurses, social workers, occupational therapists, speech therapists and physiotherapists.

The principal service users are referred by general practitioners GPs or family physicians. An important function of the clinical psychologist is critical thinking using an evidence-based approach to evaluation and intervention. Clinical psychologists also develop and evaluate new interventions using psychological theory.

According to the American Psychological Association APA website: Researchers study the theory and practice of Clinical Psychology, and through their publications, document the empirical base of Clinical Psychology. American Psychological Association, From the above description it can be seen that clinical psychology as a discipline is not wedded to any one model, theory or method, but uses what works best on the basis of the evidence base collated from experience including various methods of assessment using questionnaires and interviews, randomised controlled trials and observational studies of the effectiveness of therapies, and qualitative evidence on patient experience.

While these different approaches are overlapping and evolving, it is possible to distinguish at least four ways of working that offer theory, research and recommendations for practice.

While tensions exist between the different value systems and assumptions of these four approaches, each complements the others, and there is a potential for a powerful coalition of psychologists for health. Each approach is discussed in turn below. Clinical health psychology grew out of biomedicine and clinical psychology with a perspective that is broadly realist but also interpretative, seeking to relate psychological variables to biomedical conditions in order to understand, predict and control health processes, outcomes or quality of life QoL.

Clinical health psychology is the best established and most 10 Research methods for clinical and health psychology mainstream of the four health psychology areas as represented by the majority of textbooks, journals and academic programmes. The principal characteristics of clinical health psychology are summarised in Table 1 column 2. Public health psychology see Table 1. It is broadly realist but also interpretive, seeking to identify and manipulate psychological variables predicting mental and physical health and health promoting behaviours in the general population.

Like clinical health psychology, public health psychology is practised within the health care system but working towards health promotion and prevention rather than treatment of illness.

Public health is a multifaceted, multidisciplinary activity and public health psychology recognises the expertise of other disciplines, especially in health promotion, communications and epidemiology. It has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of public health through the application and evaluation of theories of behaviour change.

Community psychology see Table 1. Society for Community Research and Action, Community psychology involves working in coalition with members of vulnerable communities and groups, mainly outside the health care system. It sees health as wellbeing in its broadest sense, including not only mental and physical health, but also positive psychosocial aspects, such as resilience. Membership of the SCRA includes not only psychologists but also people from related disciplines such as psychiatry, social work, sociology, anthropology, public health and political science, including teachers, researchers and activists.

Community psychology is concerned with healthy psychosocial development within an ecological perspective. Critical psychology is allied to critical theory and other social sciences. It tends to be constructivist, seeking to analyse and critique assumptions and discourse associated with health and illness, including that of health professionals and researchers, in order to promote awareness of socio-political functions and consequences of these.

Critical psychology aims to analyse Table 1. Acknowledges the interdependence of individuals and communities. Shares some of the aims of public health psychology, for example, improving health literacy Critical psychology: analysis of society and the values, assumptions and practices of psychologists, health care professionals, and of all those whom they aim to serve.

Shares some of the aims of community health psychology, but with universal rather than local constituency continues overleaf Table 1.

Handbook of Research Methods for Studying Daily Life

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See our resources page for information, support and best practices. Due to the current restrictions in place, our inspection copy policy has changed. This textbook offers an excellent introduction to the variety of research methods used within the fields of clinical and health psychology. The book provides a detailed, yet concise, explanation of both qualitative and quantitative approaches and draws upon case-study examples to illustrate how these can be used in a variety of health-care settings, with special relevance to clinical disorders, disease prevention and health promotion. Research Methods for Clinical and Health Psychology fulfils the demand for a textbook explaining how qualitative and quantitative methods can be used explicitly in a health psychology context. It will be invaluable reading for clinical and health psychology students, trainees and practitioners, as well as those in nursing, medical and other healthcare departments taking an advanced psychology option. It will strike a chord with applied psychologists in particular - but will also be of interest to healthcare professionals generally.


This title is a practical guide to carrying out research in health psychology and clinical psychology. It bridges the gap between undergraduate and postgraduate​.


Research Methods for Clinical and Health Psychology

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Research Methods For Clinical And Health Psychology

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Handbook of Physiological Research Methods in Health Psychology

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Marks and Catherine Marie Sykes, First published Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, , this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.

Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, chronically occurring environmental stressors affecting the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis , cumulatively, can harm health. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For example, certain behaviors can, over time, harm smoking or consuming excessive amounts of alcohol or enhance health engaging in exercise. In other words, health psychologists understand health to be the product not only of biological processes e. By understanding psychological factors that influence health, and constructively applying that knowledge, health psychologists can improve health by working directly with individual patients or indirectly in large-scale public health programs.


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View larger. Mehl and Tamlin S. Hardcover October 20, Paperback October 15, Theoretical Background 1.

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Взломщики шифров были самым ценным достоянием АНБ, и никто не хотел, чтобы они сгорали на работе. Сьюзан посмотрела на корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, видневшийся справа. Шум генераторов, расположенных восемью этажами ниже, звучал сегодня в ее ушах необычайно зловеще. Сьюзан не любила бывать в шифровалке в неурочные часы, поскольку в таких случаях неизменно чувствовала себя запертой в клетке с гигантским зверем из научно-фантастического романа.

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