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- Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice
- Jihad in Islamic History. Doctrines and Practice
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- A Multidimensional Analysis of Religious Extremism
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Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. The comprehensive history of the role of war and terror in the spread of Islam. It is taken for granted, even among many Washington policymakers, that Islam is a fundamentally peaceful religion and that Islamic jihad terrorism is something relatively new, a product of the economic and political ferment of the twentieth century. Told in great part in the words of contemporary chroniclers themselves, both Muslim and non-Muslim, The History of Jihad shows that jihad warfare has been a constant of Islam from its very beginnings, and present-day jihad terrorism proceeds along exactly the same ideological and theological foundations as did the great Islamic warrior states and jihad commanders of the past.
Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice
The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran with and without military connotations,  often in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God al-jihad fi sabil Allah ". Killing of women and children is strictly forbidden in Jihad. Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam , though this designation is not commonly recognized. The term jihad is often rendered in English as "Holy War",    although this translation is controversial.
In Modern Standard Arabic , the term jihad is used for a struggle for causes, both religious and secular. The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic defines the term as "fight, battle; jihad, holy war against the infidels, as a religious duty ". The context of the Quran is elucidated by Hadith the teachings, deeds and sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Of the references to jihad in perhaps the most standard collection of hadith— Bukhari —all assume that jihad means warfare. The Messenger of Allah was asked about the best jihad. He said: "The best jihad is the one in which your horse is slain and your blood is spilled. According to another hadith,  supporting one's parents is also an example of jihad. The practice of periodic raids by Bedouins against enemy tribes and settlements to collect spoils predates the revelations of the Quran.
According to some scholars such as James Turner Johnson , while Islamic leaders "instilled into the hearts of the warriors the belief" in jihad "holy war" and ghaza raids , the "fundamental structure" of this bedouin warfare "remained, According with Bernard Lewis , "from an early date Muslim law laid down" jihad in the military sense as "one of the principal obligations" of both "the head of the Muslim state", who declared the jihad, and the Muslim community.
It was to be directed only by the caliph who might delayed it when convenient, negotiating truces for up to ten years at a time. The primary aim of jihad as warfare is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the Islamic state.
Classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence often contained a section called Book of Jihad , with rules governing the conduct of war covered at great length. Such rules include treatment of nonbelligerents, women, children also cultivated or residential areas ,   and division of spoils.
The first documentation of the law of jihad was written by 'Abd al-Rahman al-Awza'i and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. It grew out of debates that surfaced following Muhammad's death. According to one scholar Majid Khadduri , this is most likely because unlike the pillars of the faith statement of faith, prayer , fasting , charitable giving, Hajj pilgrimage , jihad was a "collective obligation" of the whole Muslim community meaning that "if the duty is fulfilled by a part of the community it ceases to be obligatory on others" , and was to be carried out by the Islamic state.
In the early era that inspired classical Islam Rashidun Caliphate and lasted less than a century, jihad spread the realm of Islam to include millions of subjects, and an area extending "from the borders of India and China to the Pyrenees and the Atlantic". By the Persian empire was conquered and by the Byzantine empire was reduced to a fraction of its former size.
The role of religion in these early conquests is debated. Medieval Arabic authors believed the conquests were commanded by God, and presented them as orderly and disciplined, under the command of the caliph. The famous historian William Montgomery Watt argued that "Most of the participants in the [early Islamic] expeditions probably thought of nothing more than booty There was no thought of spreading the religion of Islam.
Jurji argues that the motivations of the Arab conquests were certainly not "for the propagation of Islam Military advantage, economic desires, [and] the attempt to strengthen the hand of the state and enhance its sovereignty According to some authors, [ who? Islamic scholar Rudolph Peters also wrote that with the stagnation of Islamic expansionism, the concept of jihad became internalized as a moral or spiritual struggle.
Later Muslims in this case modernists such as Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida emphasized the defensive aspect of jihad—which was similar to the Western concept of a " just war ". Bernard Lewis states that while most Islamic theologians in the classical period — CE understood jihad to be a military endeavor,  after Islamic conquest stagnated and the caliphate broke up into smaller states the "irresistible and permanent jihad came to an end".
As jihad became unfeasible it was "postponed from historic to messianic time. They made no attempt to recover Spain or Sicily. When the Ottoman caliph called for a "Great Jihad" by all Muslims against Allied powers during World War I , there were hopes and fears that non-Turkish Muslims would side with Ottoman Turkey, but the appeal did not "[unite] the Muslim world",   and Muslims did not turn on their non-Muslim commanders in the Allied forces.
These were overturned by the popular war hero Mustafa Kemal , who was also a secularist and later abolished the caliphate. With the Islamic revival , a new " fundamentalist " movement arose, with some different interpretations of Islam, which often placed an increased emphasis on jihad. The Wahhabi movement which spread across the Arabian peninsula starting in the 18th century, emphasized jihad as armed struggle. The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in West Africa were established by a series of offensive wars in the 19th century.
Islam portal. In the 20th century, many Islamist groups appeared, being strongly influenced by the social frustrations following the economic crises of the s and s. According to Rudolph F.
Peters and Natana J. DeLong-Bas , the new "fundamentalist" movement brought a reinterpretation of Islam and their own writings on jihad. These writings tended to be less interested and involved with legal arguments, what the different of schools of Islamic law had to say, or in solutions for all potential situations.
Contemporary Islamic fundamentalists were often influenced by medieval Islamic jurist Ibn Taymiyyah 's, and Egyptian journalist Sayyid Qutb 's, ideas on jihad. Ibn Taymiyyah's hallmark themes included. He identified as heretical and deviant Muslims anyone who propagated innovations bida' contrary to the Quran and Sunna Abandoning it means losing entirely or partially both kinds of happiness.
Jihad for freedom cannot cease until the Satanic forces are put to an end and the religion is purified for God in toto. If non-Muslims were waging a "war against Islam", jihad against them was not offensive but defensive. He also insisted that Christians and Jews were mushrikeen not monotheists because he alleged gave their priests or rabbis "authority to make laws, obeying laws which were made by them [and] not permitted by God" and "obedience to laws and judgments is a sort of worship".
While Qutb felt that jihad was a proclamation of "liberation for humanity", Faraj stressed that jihad would enable Muslims to rule the world and to reestablish the caliphate. This means that a Muslim has first of all the duty to execute the command to fight with his own hands. In this way victory will be achieved through the hands of the believers by means of God's [intervention]. Faraj included deceiving the enemy, lying to him, attacking by night even if it leads to accidentally killing innocents , and felling and burning trees of the infidel, as Islamically legitimate methods of fighting.
More police than terrorists were killed that year and "several senior police officials and their bodyguards were shot dead in daylight ambushes. In the s the Muslim Brotherhood cleric Abdullah Azzam , sometimes called "the father of the modern global jihad",  opened the possibility of successfully waging jihad against unbelievers in the here and now.
Azzam issued a fatwa calling for jihad against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan , declaring it an individual obligation for all able bodied Muslims because it was a defensive jihad to repel invaders.
His fatwa was endorsed by a number of clerics including leading Saudi clerics such as Sheikh Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz. Azzam claimed that "anyone who looks into the state of Muslims today will find that their great misfortune is their abandonment of Jihad ", and he also warned that "without Jihad , shirk joining partners with Allah will spread and become dominant".
Azzam also argued for a broader interpretation of who it was permissible to kill in jihad, an interpretation that some think may have influenced some of his students, including Osama bin Laden. Many Muslims know about the hadith in which the Prophet ordered his companions not to kill any women or children, etc.
In summary, Muslims do not have to stop an attack on mushrikeen, if non-fighting women and children are present. A charismatic speaker, Azzam traveled to dozens of cities in Europe and North American to encourage support for jihad in Afghanistan. He inspired young Muslims with stories of miraculous deeds during jihad—mujahideen who defeated vast columns of Soviet troops virtually single-handed, who had been run over by tanks but survived, who were shot but unscathed by bullets. Angels were witnessed riding into battle on horseback, and falling bombs were intercepted by birds, which raced ahead of the jets to form a protective canopy over the warriors.
Between and an estimated 35, individual Muslim volunteers went to Afghanistan to fight the Soviets and their Afghan regime. Thousands more attended frontier schools teeming with former and future fighters.
Azzam saw Afghanistan as the beginning of jihad to repel unbelievers from many countries—the southern Soviet Republics of Central Asia , Bosnia , the Philippines , Kashmir , Somalia , Eritrea , Spain , and especially his home country of Palestine. Having tasted victory in Afghanistan, many of the thousands of fighters returned to their home country such as Egypt, Algeria, Kashmir or to places like Bosnia to continue jihad.
Not all the former fighters agreed with Azzam's chioice of targets Azzam was assassinated in November but former Afghan fighters led or participated in serious insurgencies in Egypt, Algeria, Kashmir, Somalia in the s and later creating a "transnational jihadist stream. In Shia Islam , Jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion ,  though not one of the five pillars. Traditionally, Twelver Shi'a doctrine has differed from that of Sunni Islam on the concept of jihad, with jihad being "seen as a lesser priority" in Shia theology and "armed activism" by Shias being "limited to a person's immediate geography".
Twelver Shia doctrine teaches that offensive Jihad can only be carried out under the leadership of Mahdi , whom is believed to return from occultation. Because of their history of being oppressed, Shias also associated jihad with certain passionate features, notably in the remembrance of Ashura. Mahmoud M. Ayoub says:. In Islamic tradition jihad or the struggle in the way of God, whether as armed struggle, or any form of opposition of the wrong, is generally regarded as one of the essential requirements of a person's faith as a Muslim.
If, therefore, Husayn 's struggle against the Umayyad regime must be regarded as an act of jihad, then, In the mind of devotees, the participation of the community in his suffering and its ascent to the truth of his message must also be regarded as an extension of the holy struggle of the Imam himself. The hadith from which we took the title of this chapter states this point very clearly.
Hence, the concept of jihad holy struggle gained a deeper and more personal meaning. Whether through weeping, the composition and recitation of poetry, showing compassion and doing good to the poor or carrying arms, the Shi'i Muslim saw himself helping the Imam in his struggle against the wrong zulm and gaining for himself the same merit thawab of those who actually fought and died for him.
The ta'ziyah , in its broader sense the sharing of the entire life of the suffering family of Muhammad, has become for the Shi'i community the true meaning of compassion.
Jihad has been called for by Shia Islamists in the 20th century, notably Ruhollah Khomeini declared jihad on Iraq during the Iran—Iraq War , and the Shia bombers of Western embassies and peacekeeping troops in Lebanon called themselves, " Islamic Jihad ".
He later played a role in the Iraqi revolt of By the start of the revolt itself in , Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Shirazi the father of Mohammad al-Husayni al-Shirazi and grandfather of Sadiq Hussaini Shirazi , declared through a Fatwa, that it was not permissible or acceptable for Muslims to be ruled by non-Muslims and called for Jihad against European powers in the Middle East.
During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan , despite being a predominantly Sunni nation, Afghanistan's Shiite population took arms against the Communist government and allied Soviet forces like the nation's Sunnis and were collectively referred to as the Afghan Mujahideen. Shiite Jihadists in Afghanistan were known as the Tehran Eight and received support from the Iranian government in fighting against the Communist Afghan government and allied Soviet forces in Afghanistan.
In fighting broke out between Kadim's movement and the Iraqi Army as well as supporting American soldiers, after the Iraqi government claimed to have discovered a plot to assassinate Ali al-Sistani , who is considered influential, along with other Shiite clerics to cause as much chaos as possible in line with the beliefs of the Soldiers of Heaven, that causing chaos would usher the apocalypse , during the battle of Kadim's followers, and Kadim himself were killed by American and Iraqi forces.
According to The National , this changed with the Syrian Civil War , where, "for the first time in the history of Shia Islam, adherents are seeping into another country to fight in a holy war to defend their doctrine. The movement was founded in the s as a Zaydi revivalist movement by Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi who believed his movement served to defend Islam; he had also lived in Iran for a period of time, and held Iran's supreme leader Ruhollah Khomeini in high regard, and a former parliament member part of the Islamist Party of Truth , as the Believing Youth.
Under Abdul Malik's leadership the group partly seized control of the country initiating a civil war in Yemen, causing the Yemeni government to request assistance from Saudi Arabia to fight the Houthis in Jihad is a popular term in current Turkey. As of the İmam Hatip schools offer lessons about the Jihad as a religious concept. Some observers   have noted the evolution in the rules of jihad—from the original "classical" doctrine to that of 21st century Salafi jihadism.
The first or the "classical" doctrine of jihad which was developed towards the end of the 8th century, emphasized the jihad of the sword jihad bil-saif rather than the "jihad of the heart",  but it contained many legal restrictions which were developed from interpretations of both the Quran and the Hadith , such as detailed rules involving "the initiation, the conduct, the termination" of jihad, the treatment of prisoners, the distribution of booty, etc.
Unless there was a sudden attack on the Muslim community , jihad was not a "personal obligation" fard ayn ; instead it was a "collective one" fard al-kifaya ,  which had to be discharged "in the way of God" fi sabil Allah ,  and it could only be directed by the caliph , "whose discretion over its conduct was all but absolute.
Jihad in Islamic History. Doctrines and Practice
Unlike its medieval Christian counterpart term, 'crusade' 'war for the cross' , however, the term jihad for Muslims has retained its religious and military connotation into modern times. The word jihad has appeared widely in the Western news media following the 11 September terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but the true meaning of this term in the Islamic world it is sometimes called the 'sixth pillar' of the faith is still not well understood by non-Muslims. In war, the first essential is to know your adversary; how he thinks and why he thinks that way, and what his strategy and objectives are, so that you can attempt to frustrate his plans and protect the lives of your fellow citizens. Understanding how radical Muslims see jihad and are employing it asymmetrically against us can provide us with that kind of perspective. This article will trace the development of jihad through early Islamic history into the present day, and will focus on how jihad in concept and practice has been appropriated and distorted by Muslim extremists as part of their violent campaign against the West and their own governments. Jihad as a centerpiece of radical thought is illustrated by examining the doctrines of prominent extremist groups such as Hamas and Egyptian Islamic Jihad.
During the Meccan period c. In their articulation of international law , classical Muslim jurists were primarily concerned with issues of state security and military defense of Islamic realms, and, accordingly, they focused primarily on jihad as a military duty, which became the predominant meaning in legal and official literature. Submitting to political realism, however, many premodern Muslim jurists went on to permit wars of expansion in order to extend Muslim rule over non-Muslim realms. Some even came to regard the refusal of non-Muslims to accept Islam as an act of aggression in itself, which could invite military retaliation on the part of the Muslim ruler. They could either embrace Islam or at least submit themselves to Islamic rule and pay a special tax jizyah.
The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran with and without military connotations,  often in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God al-jihad fi sabil Allah ". Killing of women and children is strictly forbidden in Jihad. Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam , though this designation is not commonly recognized. The term jihad is often rendered in English as "Holy War",    although this translation is controversial. In Modern Standard Arabic , the term jihad is used for a struggle for causes, both religious and secular.
At one end of this spectrum, anti-Islamic polemicists use jihad as proof of Islam's innate violence and its incompatibility with Read Online · Download PDF. Save.
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Even though religious extremism is currently a hotly debated topic, it is often reduced to a unidimensional construct that is linked to religious violence. We develop a model of religious extremism in theological, ritual, social, and political dimensions of religion based on the variety of Islamic groups in Indonesia. Going beyond an analysis that equates Muslim extremism with violence, we argue that Muslims or indeed any religious group may be extreme in some dimensions but moderate in others, e. Interpreting extremism relative to these four dimensions provides new insights when examining the global issue of religious extremism and helps to better predict how religious extremism is expressed. More generally, our framework helps to develop an understanding of radicalism that goes beyond a focus on violence.
Many of our ebooks are available for purchase from these online vendors:. Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. What is jihad? Does it mean violence, as many non-Muslims assume?
A Multidimensional Analysis of Religious Extremism
This chapter focuses on three conceptualizations of jihad endemic in the Western Academy and subjects them to a critical analysis. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
Да. Немало. - В Севилью - по делам? - настаивал Ролдан.
Download Citation | Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice | What is jihad? Does it mean violence, as many non-Muslims assume? Or does it mean.
Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать. Быстрым движением Халохот подтащил его к скамье, стараясь успеть, прежде чем на спине проступят кровавые пятна. Шедшие мимо люди оборачивались, но Халохот не обращал на них внимания: еще секунда, и он исчезнет.
Дорогие друзья, сегодня я свожу счеты с жизнью, не в силах вынести тяжести своих грехов… Не веря своим глазам, Сьюзан медленно читала предсмертную записку. Все это было так неестественно, так непохоже на Хейла, а список преступлений больше напоминал перечень сданного в прачечную белья. Он признался во всем - в том, как понял, что Северная Дакота всего лишь призрак, в том, что нанял людей, чтобы те убили Энсея Танкадо и забрали у него кольцо, в том, что столкнул вниз Фила Чатрукьяна, потому что рассчитывал продать ключ от Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан дошла до последней строки. В ней говорилось о том, к чему она совершенно не была готова.
Скажи, что ты ушел с поста декана. Дэвид кивнул. - В следующем семестре я возвращаюсь в аудиторию. Сьюзан с облегчением вздохнула: - Туда, где твое подлинное призвание. Дэвид улыбнулся: - Да.
Компьютер издал звуковой сигнал.