Oreskes And Conway Merchants Of Doubt Pdf
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It identifies parallels between the global warming controversy and earlier controversies over tobacco smoking , acid rain , DDT , and the hole in the ozone layer.
Archie Recommended Bookz to Read. Search this site. Before I read this book, I had read some reviews which had me wondering if this one would be something I'd like, reviews from people whose opinions I trust. Short overview about this book : The U.
Merchants of Doubt
It identifies parallels between the global warming controversy and earlier controversies over tobacco smoking , acid rain , DDT , and the hole in the ozone layer. Oreskes and Conway write that in each case "keeping the controversy alive" by spreading doubt and confusion after a scientific consensus had been reached was the basic strategy of those opposing action.
Some of the book's subjects have been critical of the book, but most reviewers received it favorably. One reviewer said that Merchants of Doubt is exhaustively researched and documented, and may be one of the most important books of Another reviewer saw the book as his choice for best science book of the year. Oreskes and Conway write that a handful of politically conservative scientists, with strong ties to particular industries, have "played a disproportionate role in debates about controversial questions".
All three are physicists: Singer was a space and satellite researcher, whereas Nierenberg and Seitz worked on the atomic bomb. The book claims that these scientists have challenged and diluted the scientific consensus in the various fields, as of the dangers of smoking , the effects of acid rain, the existence of the " ozone hole ", and the existence of anthropogenic climate change. Marshall Institute in the United States.
Funded by corporations and conservative foundations , these organizations have opposed many forms of state intervention or regulation of U. The book lists similar tactics in each case: "discredit the science, disseminate false information, spread confusion, and promote doubt".
The book states that Seitz, Singer, Nierenberg and Robert Jastrow were all fiercely anti-communist and they viewed government regulation as a step towards socialism and communism.
The authors argue that, with the collapse of the Soviet Union , they looked for another great threat to free market capitalism and found it in environmentalism.
They feared that an over-reaction to environmental problems would lead to heavy-handed government intervention in the marketplace and intrusion into people's lives. They say that Seitz, Singer, Nierenberg and Jastrow denied the scientific evidence, contributed to a strategy of delay, and thereby helped to bring about the situation they most dreaded. Oreskes and Conway state: "small numbers of people can have large, negative impacts, especially if they are organised, determined and have access to power".
The main conclusion of the book is that there would have been more progress in policy making if not for the influence of the contrarian "experts", who tried for ideological reasons to undermine trust in the science base for regulation. Most reviewers received Merchants of Doubt enthusiastically. Kitcher says that the apparently harsh claims against Nierenberg, Seitz, and Singer are "justified through a powerful dissection of the ways in which prominent climate scientists, such as Roger Revelle and Ben Santer , were exploited or viciously attacked in the press".
In The Christian Science Monitor , Will Buchanan says that Merchants of Doubt is exhaustively researched and documented, and may be one of the most important books of Oreskes and Conway are seen to demonstrate that the doubt merchants are not "objective scientists" as the term is popularly understood. Instead, they are "science-speaking mercenaries" hired by corporations to process numbers to prove that the corporations' products are safe and useful. Buchanan says they are salesmen, not scientists.
He wrote that Oreskes and Conway use a combination of thorough scholarly research combined with writing reminiscent of the best investigative journalism, to "unravel deep common links to past environmental and public health controversies".
Phil England writes in The Ecologist that the strength of the book is the rigour of the research and the detailed focus on key incidents. England also said that there is little coverage about the millions of dollars which Exxon Mobil has put into funding groups actively involved in promoting climate change denial and doubt.
A review in The Economist calls this a powerful book which articulates the politics involved and the degree to which scientists have sometimes manufactured and exaggerated environmental uncertainties, but opines that the authors fail to fully explain how environmental action has still often proved possible despite countervailing factors. Robert N. Proctor , who coined the term " agnotology " to describe the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, wrote in American Scientist that Merchants of Doubt is a detailed and artfully written book.
Robin McKie in The Guardian states that Oreskes and Conway deserve considerable praise for exposing the influence of a small group of Cold War ideologues. Their tactic of spreading doubt has confused the public about a series of key scientific issues such as global warming, even though scientists have actually become more certain about their research results. McKie says that Merchants of Doubt includes detailed notes on all sources used, is carefully paced, and is "my runaway contender for best science book of the year".
Sociologist Reiner Grundmann 's review in BioSocieties journal, acknowledges that the book is well researched and factually based, but criticizes the book as being written in a black and white manner whereas historians should write a more nuanced description. The book depicts special interests and contrarians misleading the public as being mainly responsible for stopping action on policy. He says this shows a lack of basic understanding of the political process and the mechanisms of knowledge policy , because the authors assume that public policy would follow on from an understanding of the science.
While the book provides "all the [formal] hallmarks of science", Grundmann sees it less as a scholarly work than a passionate attack and overall as a problematic book. Marshall Institute , which was founded by Seitz,  say that although Merchants of Doubt has the appearance of a scholarly work, it discredits and undermines the reputations of people who in their lifetime contributed greatly to the American nation. They say that it does this by questioning their integrity, impugning their character, and questioning their judgement.
She has degrees in geological science and a Ph. Her work came to public attention in with the publication of "The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change," in Science , in which she wrote that there was no significant disagreement in the scientific community about the reality of global warming from human causes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the book. For the film based on the book, see Merchants of Doubt film. Dewey Decimal. The Australian.
Bloomsbury Press. The Guardian. Sony Pictures Classics. Retrieved March 8, Bibcode : Sci USA Today. Das Netzwerk des Leugnens.
In: Physik in unserer Zeit 46, Issue 2, , p. Merchants of Doubt: How "scientific" misinformation campaigns sold untruths to consumers The Christian Science Monitor. Merchants of Doubt The Ecologist. Marshall Institute, a conservative think tank. Policy Outlook. George C. Marshall Institute. Archived from the original PDF on October 29, Retrieved March 12, Although cloaked in the appearance of scholarly work, the book constitutes an effort to discredit and undermine the reputations of three deceased scientists who contributed greatly to our nation Global warming portal Environment portal.
Categories : non-fiction books in the environment 21st-century history books History books about science History books about politics Climate change books Climate change denial Environmental non-fiction books Political books Books about the politics of science Non-fiction books adapted into films Professional ethics Doubt Literary collaborations.
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When doubt becomes a weapon
Read in: 4 minutes Favorite quote from the author:. We know that smoking is bad for people. How did it take so long for the news to reach the consumer? Tobacco companies spread doubt among consumers. And it worked.
— Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway. Blooms-bury Press, New York, New York. pp. ISBN:
Merchants of Doubt
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Merchants of Doubt Summary
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Это новейшее оружие, направленное против разведслужб. Если эта программа попадет на рынок, любой третьеклассник, имеющий модем, получит возможность отправлять зашифрованные сообщения, которые АНБ не сможет прочесть. Это означает конец нашей разведки.
Хейл не мог поверить, что Стратмор согласился упустить такую возможность: ведь черный ход был величайшим шансом в его жизни. Хейлом овладела паника: повсюду, куда бы он ни посмотрел, ему мерещился ствол беретты Стратмора. Он шарахался из стороны в сторону, не выпуская Сьюзан из рук, стараясь не дать Стратмору возможности выстрелить. Движимый страхом, он поволок Сьюзан к лестнице. Через несколько минут включат свет, все двери распахнутся, и в шифровалку ворвется полицейская команда особого назначения. - Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан.
Дальше бежать было некуда. Как трасса, на продолжение которой не хватило денег, улочка вдруг оборвалась.
Консьерж взглянул на конверт и что-то грустно пробормотал себе под нос. Еще один любитель молоденьких девочек, - подумал. - Ну. Сеньор?.
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