Difference Between Ftir And Ir Pdf
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FTIR spectrometers Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer are widely used in organic synthesis, polymer science, petrochemical engineering, pharmaceutical industry and food analysis. In addition, since FTIR spectrometers can be hyphenated to chromatography, the mechanism of chemical reactions and the detection of unstable substances can be investigated with such instruments. The discovery of infrared light can be dated back to the 19th century.
- How an FTIR Spectrometer Operates
- A Beginner’s Guide to Interpreting & Analyzing FTIR Results
- Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
- Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR  is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid, liquid or gas.
The analyzed artifact represents a traditional pillowcase originating from Moldavia historical region, from the end of the XIX th century — beginning of the XX th century, belonging to a private collection. The technique offers some advantages because relatively small samples are directly analyzed after they are pressed against the surface of the diamond crystal without damaging the samples. Identification of fiber type enables sometimes to approximate the age of an artifact, the climate type or the trade routes and manufacturing process used. The artifact is formed of two major components: the support textile fiber and the colored fibers. The most encountered materials traditionally used for such objects are wool, flax and hemp.
How an FTIR Spectrometer Operates
In particular it permits to identify the degradation phases and to establish the structural relationship between them and the substratum. In this paper, we report the results obtained on marble from a Roman sarcophagus, located in the medieval cloister of St. Cosimato Convent Rome , and on oolitic limestone from the facade of St. Giuseppe Church in Syracuse Sicily.
The main components found in the samples of both monuments are: gypsum, calcium oxalate, and organic matter due to probably conservation treatments. In particular, the qualitative distribution maps of degradation products, obtained by means of micro-FTIR operating in ATR mode, revealed that the degradation process is present deep inside the stones also if it is not visible macroscopically. This process represents the main cause of crumbling of the substrate.
The results of this research highlight the benefits of the -FTIR analysis providing useful insights on the polishing and consolidation processes of stone materials. The diagnostic analysis of the degradation process of the monument stone has acquired ever more importance regarding its restoration and maintenance.
Such studies require analysis of the materials used and an accurate characterization of the degradation products with the aim of evaluating the effects of the degradation.
Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy FTIR represents a powerful technique in diagnostic analysis of cultural heritage [ 1 — 3 ], in particular the micro-FTIR -FTIR is more recent technique that improved the potential of vibrational spectroscopy in the field of diagnostic and conservation of art works [ 4 — 8 ].
The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, the high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of -FTIR technique allow the identification of micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute samples and the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds.
The present paper is a research aimed at characterizing degradation products and determination of the previous restoration works on a roman sarcophagus and on the facade of the Church of San Giuseppe.
In particular the roman sarcophagus is located in the cloister of San Cosimato convent in Rome, actually the Regina Margherita Hospital Rome , while the Church of San Giuseppe is located in the Island of Ortigia, historical centre of the city of Syracusa Sicily.
The analyzed samples are fragments coming from a Roman sarcophagus, located in the medieval cloister of St. Cosimato Convent Rome , and from the facade of St. Before sampling, the stone surface was brushed in order to remove the incoherent deposits.
After that, few milligrams of sample were scratched from the surface in different points. Then the samples were crushed, and homogeneous fine powders were obtained. Furthermore some microfragments containing both degraded phases and substrate were taken in order to make stratigraphic thin sections.
The external side of the sarcophagus is adorned with strigile flutes and by a central clipeo , which before restoration, seemed to have no decorations. The sarcophagus has a hole in the centre which suggests a past use as a wash-basin. Inside the sarcophagus, a low pillow is visible on the right side. The marble appears fine grained and covered by a pink-coloured thick layer Figure 1 a ; in this layer is evident the small portions of detachment material.
The sampling on the sarcophagus is made up of six samples, taken from the degraded areas Table 1. The Church of San Giuseppe was built in the second half of the eighteenth century and is constituted exclusively by oolitic limestone. The building, surmounted by a belfry, has an octagonal plan and a single nave with a semicircular apse. The facades show typical baroque architectonical elements [ 9 ]. After a careful macroscopic examination, several types of different stone decay were found.
In particular alveolitation and granular disintegration are mainly located on the columns of the main portal, while black crusts and brown-orange-coloured chromatic alterations are present on almost all of the facade Figure 1 b. The sampling on the facade is made up of six samples, taken from the degraded areas Table 2. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy FTIR was performed for a mineralogical characterization of the powdered samples by means of comparison to a data base [ 10 ].
The great advantage of this spectroscopic technique is the high sensibility which allows the detection of many components, even at very low amounts. The qualitative distribution maps of mineralogical phases, performed on thin sections, have been obtained by using a micro-Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer -FTIR Spotlight Perkin Elmer microscope, equipped with an MCT detector cooled by liquid nitrogen, a germanium ATR crystal, and a computer-controlled mapping stage programmable in the and directions.
Point-by-point spectral mapping of the thin section was carried out in a grid pattern with the computer-controlled microscope stage with a spot of. The map spectra were collected with 4 scans for each spectrum. They are based on the compare correlation value calculated by Spotlight software of the recorded spectra with references ones. A compare correlation map indicates the areas of a map, where the spectra are most similar to a reference spectrum.
The spectroscopic study was aimed at essentially characterizing the main degradation products present on both typologies of materials sampled. The IR spectra of all samples taken from sarcophagus and facade of S. Gypsum originates from the transformation of calcite in the presence of sulphur oxides, while silicate was subsequently embedded in the crust due to the deposition of wind-born particles [ 11 ] Figure 2.
From these results, it can be presumed that an organic compound should not be used for protection treatment. In fact, the areas where the organic compounds were found showed a chromatic alteration that could be related to the degradation process of the organic matter used in the previous restorations.
Ultrathin sections of samples containing patinas were studied by using a -FTIR microscope. The analysis was aimed at investigating the superficial layer coating of the stone substrate.
The qualitative distribution maps of calcite, gypsum, and whewellite have been obtained by using the correlation of the recorded spectra with the reference ones of calcite, gypsum, and whewellite. The bright areas indicate regions of high correlation therefore high concentration , while dark areas indicate a low concentration Figure 3. In Figure 3 c it is evident that gypsum is present in different areas of the bulk.
In all samples investigated we have found a penetration of the gypsum into the substrate. Unfortunately, from the samples taken from the artwork, it is very hard to give a value to the penetration depth because we found gypsum dishomogeneously distributed throughout the bulk, so deeper samples are needed to assess the penetration degree.
As described in literature [ 16 ], whewellite is more localized within the sample Figure 3 d and often combined with black crust. The maps of sample of S. Giuseppe Church are also based on the correlation of the recorded spectra with the reference ones of gypsum and whewellite. The bright areas indicate regions of high correlation therefore high concentration , while dark areas indicate a low concentration Figure 4. They confirm the presence of gypsum and whewellite, as shown in the FTIR analysis, and also confirmed that degradation products are exclusively sited on the external surface of the sample.
Figure 5 is obtained by overlap gypsum and oxalate maps, it is evident that the distribution of the two mineralogical phases, in particular oxalate, is mainly located below the gypsum. This analytical technique has provided useful information for the manufact cleaning process.
In fact, during restoration, the thin oxalate layer lying below the gypsum crust was preserved. This patina is considered very useful for the protection [ 17 ] of stones, even if it involves only the surface of the sample, because the surface is not alternated.
The characteristics of absorbance and wetting do not change; the porosity decreases but does not interfere with the passing of liquid water; therefore, resistance towards acid substances is increased.
This paper represents an example of diagnostic analysis for conservation of historical cultural heritage. Results, obtained by using spectroscopic analytical techniques, allow the awareness on degradation products as well as the conservational state of marble and calcarenite to be advanced.
In particular, the combined used of FTIR and -FTIR analysis highlighted the presence and the distribution of gypsum and calcium oxalate on the stone surface. Furthermore, this research confirms the importance of infrared spectroscopy for a semiquantitative determination of both inorganic and organic phases and demonstrates how the micro-FTIR provides information about restoration process.
In particular, by means of degradation products mapping, it is possible to discriminate with cleaning, and consolidation methods are more appropriate for preserving the oxalate layers that represent a natural protective coating. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Maher S. Received 12 Mar Accepted 18 Apr Published 17 Jun Introduction The diagnostic analysis of the degradation process of the monument stone has acquired ever more importance regarding its restoration and maintenance.
The Samples The analyzed samples are fragments coming from a Roman sarcophagus, located in the medieval cloister of St. Figure 1. Giuseppe Church. Samples Sampling points and typology of degradation products Sar1 Central clipeo , right side, black crust Sar 2 Sixth strigile , at right-high side of clipeo black crust Sar 4 Higher left side, orange patinas Sar 5a Inside left area, black crust Sar 5b Inside left area, orange patinas.
Table 1. List of specimens, sampling point and typology of degradation products. Samples Sampling points and typology of degradation products SG1 Calcarenite with black crust localized on the base of column right SG2 Calcarenite with black crust localized on the base of column left SG3 Calcarenite with black crust localized on the portal SG4 Brown-orange patinas present on the facade SG5 Brown-orange patinas present on the facade SG6 Brown-orange patinas present on the facade.
Table 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. The bright areas indicate regions of high concentration, while dark areas indicate a low concentration. Figure 4. Figure 5. Thin section analyzed. References D. Bersani, E. Campani, A. Casoli, P. Lottici, and I. Bosch Reig, J. Gimeno Adelantado, and V. Tobin, E. Pantos, A. Prag, and T. Bruni, F. Cariati, F. Casadio, and L.
A Beginner’s Guide to Interpreting & Analyzing FTIR Results
In particular it permits to identify the degradation phases and to establish the structural relationship between them and the substratum. In this paper, we report the results obtained on marble from a Roman sarcophagus, located in the medieval cloister of St. Cosimato Convent Rome , and on oolitic limestone from the facade of St. Giuseppe Church in Syracuse Sicily. The main components found in the samples of both monuments are: gypsum, calcium oxalate, and organic matter due to probably conservation treatments.
Infrared spectroscopy: a tool for determination of the degree of conversion in dental composites. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most widely used techniques for measurement of conversion degree in dental composites. However, to obtain good quality spectra and quantitative analysis from spectral data, appropriate expertise and knowledge of the technique are mandatory. This paper presents important details to use infrared spectroscopy for determination of the conversion degree. Key words: Dental composites. Degree of conversion.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR is an incredibly versatile materials analysis technique, helping identify organic and some inorganic materials that could be the source of product contamination or cause a malfunction. As a result, we often recommend FTIR to our clients as the first step in the testing process. Your materials testing lab should be providing you with clear, detailed, and actionable insights and recommendations in an easy to understand format—something Innovatech Labs is dedicated to. The Fourier transform spectrometer works to convert the raw data from the broad-band light source to actually obtain the absorbance level at each wavelength.
Each issue covers review articles on Drug discovery topics, and also publishes full-length reviews related to different subjects in pharmacy and that are of broad readership interest to users in industry, academia, and government. The first issue was published online in December
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Где теперь это кольцо? - спросил Беккер. Лейтенант глубоко затянулся. - Долгая история. Чутье подсказывало Беккеру, что это открытие не сулит ему ничего хорошего. - Все равно расскажите. ГЛАВА 15 Сьюзан Флетчер расположилась за компьютерным терминалом Третьего узла. Этот узел представлял собой звуконепроницаемую уединенную камеру, расположенную неподалеку от главного зала.
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Сзади послышался возглас: - Двухминутное предупреждение.